Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution. Before 1700 in Europe… The most important event of the year was the harvest. Most people lived in rural areas and on farms."— Presentation transcript:
Before 1700 in Europe… The most important event of the year was the harvest. Most people lived in rural areas and on farms. Most people never traveled more than 10 miles from home.
From 1700 to 1800 in Europe… BIG changes occur! Farms become more productive because of new technology such as iron plows, crop rotation (what is that?), and fertilizer. The population doubles to about 190 million people…..Why??? Machine Power! Machines inside of factories are powered by water and then by steam.
Spinning fabric at home Spinning machines in factories CHANGE
The Textile Boom A growing population created more demand for textiles. New machines were invented that could make textiles quickly and cheaply. Merchants built large buildings (factories) for these textile machines.
A BIG Change! Before the Industrial Revolution: most people lived on farms that provided them with all they needed (food, clothing, etc.)
A BIG Change! During the Industrial Revolution: many people move to cities to work in factories. They use the money them make to buy food, clothing, and other goods.
James Watt Perfects the steam engine in 1769. By using coal as fuel, the steam engine provides unlimited power to factories and inventions like the locomotive.
A New Social Pyramid A middle class grew out of England’s new factory economy. The middle class was made up of business people such as merchants, lawyers, factory owners, and bankers.
A New Social Pyramid The biggest group in British society was the working class. These people were men and women who left farms to work in the factories in the cities.
A New Social Pyramid Rich, Wealthy Middle Class Working Class...includes factory workers and those still working on the farms.
Working Conditions Working conditions in the factories and mines were dangerous, dirty, and noisy. Children worked! They were used in tight, narrow spaces. There was no age restriction. Do you think these workers were paid a lot of money?
Working Conditions Work was boring and repetitive. Work days were long….sunrise to sunset! There was no electricity yet, so work was done during daylight hours.
An Idea for Change Poor factory conditions led workers to organize and demand improvements. These groups of workers formed organizations called unions which fought for better working conditions and more money.
Karl Marx A German philosopher who believed that the factory workers became rich, while the workers remained poor. His solution was for workers to own the factories. What do you think of his idea? Will it work?
Karl Marx Marx believed that workers would rise up and take control. He wanted to do away with social classes and limit government. Many people became interested in his ideas, which became known as socialism.
The Industrial Revolution started in England, spread to Europe, and later to the United States.