Vocab Agrarian Domestic system Entrepreneurs Capital Capitalism Factory system
Big Questions After we study this section, we should be able to answer these questions: What was daily life was like before the growth of industry? What factors helped start the Industrial Revolution?
Before and After Before the Industrial Revolution People mostly made their living through farming Life followed a cycle of the planting seasons, dawn and dusk There was a small wealthy class, and a large working class Most people lived in the country in small villages After the Industrial Revolution Many more people made a living through industry Life followed a pattern set by clocks and workdays A middle class emerged and grew More people would live in or close to cities, with cities growing quickly
Agrarian Lifestyle People living in the 1700s before the Industrial Revolution lived basically the same as someone 100, 200, even 300 or 400 years before Farmed for a living Religious holidays and seasons marked time Little change Life was short and harsh – only half the people survived to 21, and life expectancy was around 40 Most people lived in villages that they never left all their lives
Village Life Basically everyone farmed Wealthy landowners usually owned most of the village Farmers worked cooperatively to grow different crops, decide what to grow Local economies – grew locally, consumed locally Small, unsanitary, uncomfortable living spaces – sometimes shared with their animals, disease
Early Industries Often, farmers would help with small industries such as coal, glass, iron, and textile production when not farming Workers in small industries would help during harvest time Wool was produced in the homes of farm workers, then sold back to textile manufacturers – domestic system New machines and sources of power would end this way of living
Britain and Changes in Agriculture In Britain, Parliament allowed rich landowners to consolidate small farms and common areas into larger farms More profitable More produced Fewer farm workers needed – labor surplus This small agricultural revolution gave Great Britain all it needed to begin the Industrial Revolution Capital – money and materials to invest Natural resources – fuel, raw materials Labor supply - workers
Capital Capital is money for investing in other things that you need for industry Many in Britain became wealthy on farming, the slave trade, overseas commerce These rich people had extra money that they could invest in new opportunities – industry A small middle class also began to emerge, and they had capital, as well These people invest to try to make a profit - capitalism
Natural Resources Great Britain had many natural resources that suited it for industry Good natural harbors – for exporting manufactured goods Internal river system that allowed transportation, water power for factories Large supplies of iron and coal – most important materials of the early Industrial Revolution
Labor Supply Better, more nutritious food allowed people to live longer, healthier lives In one century, England’s population almost doubled Inventions such as the steel plow meant farms needed fewer workers As farmers were let go by landowners, they moved to cities to find industrial jobs Entrepreneurs began to bring together capital, resources, and labor
The Textile Industry A growing demand for fabrics, especially cotton, drove the early Industrial Revolution Technological innovations made production easier Flying shuttle – weaving two to three times faster Spinning jenny – spin yarn up to 80 times faster Waterframe – spun yarn, water powered Spinning mule – combined several of these, allowed the spinning of fine cloth called muslin Power loom – weaving machine Cotton gin – invented by Eli Whitney, made cotton production faster, cheaper
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin Whitney’s cotton engine, or cotton gin, allowed one worker to clean as much cotton as fifty workers could do by hand.
Textiles and the Factory System Cloth production moved away from the domestic system and into factories Large buildings Built near major waterways Factory system – brought workers and machines together under the control of managers Thomas Watt develops a reliable steam engine in 1760 – allows factories to be built far from waterways
Other Industrial Inventions Use of factory machinery increased the demand for iron and steel William Kelly, an American ironworker, and Henry Bessemer, a British engineer, developed the Bessemer process – allowed the production of inexpensive steel Thomas Telford and John McAdam developed new systems for draining and paving roads Steam power and steel allowed railroads and steamboats to change transportation
Bessemer Steel Converter The Bessemer steel converter on the left was used in the Bessemer steel process. Air is forced through the molten steel to remove impurities, making it cheaper to produce
Homework While technology and science can create many advantages and positive impacts, they can also have unintended, negative impacts. Pick a piece of technology in your life. Write a paragraph describing the intended uses of the technology. Then, discuss some of the unintended effects that this technology has on everyday life.