2 In 1800, only 3 percent of the Earth’s population lived in cities and only one city in the world had 1 million (Beijing).Today there are over 400 cities with more than 1million people.
3 Urbanization Urbanization has two factors Increasing percentage of people in citiesRemember that 3 percent? In 2000, 47% of world population lived in citiesMDCs have a higher percentage of people living in urban areas (3/4 MDC vs. 2/5 LDC)This change is taking place because the IR created factory jobs in citiesImprovements in farming also reduced rural populationThis process has ended in MDCs as the percentage living in urban areas cannot really increase any more (people now choose to stay in rural areas)
4 Increasing number of people in cities MDCs might have a higher percentage, but LDCs actually have more of the extremely large urban settlements (Delhi, Mexico City, Seoul)These high populations are a result of high NIRs and people migrating for jobs that are not availableSo this is NOT a measure of development
5 Defining Urban Settlements People cannot always agree on what areas are urban and which are ruralGeographers use social and physical factors to determine if it is an urban areaSocial differences- way of life in city is different that ruralLarge size: Small town vs. huge city where you know only a very small percent of residents, usually through your business dealings (cashiers, boss, lawyer, etc.)High density: Each person plays a specific role (specialization), social groups also compete for territorySocial heterogeneity: Large cities have much more diversity and end to be more accepting of different social behaviors.
6 Physical definitions- cities used to be surrounded by walls, now it is more difficult to measure Legal definition: Local governments draw boundaries defining the extent of a cityUrbanized area: Urban areas consist of the central city and surrounding built up suburbs where population exceeds 1000 people per square mileMetropolitan statistical area: Includes a cities zone of influence (TV stations, sports teams, etc.) Includes the following:County where the city is locatedUrbanized area with 50,000 plusAdjacent counties with high population densities and large percentage of citizens working in the central cities county
7 Large CitiesFig. 13-2: Cities with 2 million or more people. Most of the largest cities are now in LDCs.
8 Percent Urban by Region Fig. 13-2b: Although under half of the people in most less developed regions are urban, Latin America and the Middle East have urban percentages comparable to MDCs.
9 Chapter 13.2: Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas?
10 People are not randomly distributed within an urban area. They concentrate in certain neighborhoods depending on their social characteristics.
11 Three Models of Urban Structure Each helps to explain where different types of people tend to live in an urban areaConcentric Zone ModelSays a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric ringsWidth and size of each ring varies from city to city, but each city has the ringsCBD- nonresidential activitiesZone in Transition- Industry and poorer housingWorking Class Homes- Modest, older homes owned by stable working class familiesBetter Residences- Newer homes, occupied by middle classCommuter Zone- Smaller towns outside the built up area
12 Concentric Zone ModelFig. 13-5: In the concentric zone model, a city grows in a series of rings surrounding the CBD.
13 Sector Model Says that a city develops in numerous sectors, not rings Some areas of the city are more attractive to certain groups and as a city grows its activities expand in a wedgeShowed the highest social class district stayed in the same area and expanded outward
14 Sector ModelFig. 13-6: In the sector model, a city grows in a series of wedges or corridors extending out from the CBD.
15 Multiple Nuclei ModelStates that a city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolveNodes include ports, business centers, universities, etc.Each node attracts different groups of people (heavy industry- working class, university-educated/wealthy)
16 Multiple Nuclei ModelFig. 13-7: The multiple nuclei model views a city as a collection of individual centers, around which different people and activities cluster.
17 Use of the Models Outside North America The three models were developed in the USSocial groups in other countries might not have the same reasons for choosing where to liveEuropean CitiesWealthy Europeans tend to cluster together in cities but are more likely to be in the inner ringAs the downtown areas are very small, many wealthy Europeans purchase rural farms or other areas to “get away”Poorer people tend to live on the outskirts of the city
18 Less Developed Countries The poor are usually located in the suburbs just like European citiesThis is not a coincidence, but a result of European colonialismThe wealthiest neighborhoods are located where energy, water, and sewage is availableWith the rapidly expanding populations of these cities, squatter settlements pop upExtremely high density with very few servicesBegin with people sleeping in the street, then building crude shelters with whatever materials are availablePercentages of people living in these conditions range from 33% in Sao Paulo Brazil to 85% in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
19 Professionals in Glasgow Fig : Top professionals in Glasgow, Scotland, are more likely to live near the center of the city, in contrast to most U.S. cities.
20 Latin American City Model Fig : In many Latin American cities, the wealthy live in the inner city and in a sector extending along a commercial spine.
21 Rio de Janeiro, BrazilFig : High income households in Rio de Janeiro live in the CBD and in a spine along the ocean. Low-income households often live in peripheral areas.
22 Chapter 13.3: Why Do Inner Cities Have Distinctive Problems?
23 Physical ProblemsThe biggest physical problem is the poor condition of inner-city housingProcess of deteriorationAs low income populations grow, the neighborhoods spread into the middle classMiddle class families typically move out of these neighborhoods and rent their homes outIn some cases large homes are slit into multiple residences for rentEventually the landlords stop paying for repairs and the buildings rapidly deteriorateSometimes banks decide not to give certain parts of a city loans, this is called redlining and while illegal it is hard to enforceRedlining prevents people from getting the money to fix up inner city homes
24 Dayton, Ohio, Inner CityFig : Drug-related arrests (left) have been concentrated in the inner-west side of the city. In the 2001 mayoral election, votes for Rhine McLin concentrated in the African-American section of the city.
25 Urban RenewalCities identify deteriorated neighborhoods and move out all residents in order to bulldoze the neighborhood and build it back upOften times the government replaces this land with government housing, or homes built specifically for low-income familiesAn alternative to demolishing is to renovate inner-city neighborhoodsThis renovation often attracts middle class people.When middle class families move back into this neighborhood it is known as gentrification
26 Social ProblemsInner-city residents are often referred to as a permanent underclass since they are locked in an endless cycle of social and economic problemsThey suffer from high rates of unemployment, alcoholism, drug abuse, illiteracy, juvenile delinquency, poor education, and crime
27 Two social problems Lack of job skills Due to poor education, residents are unable to compete for skilled or technical jobGood learning habits such as doing homework and attending school tend not to be importantNearly 3 million Americans are considered homeless in the course of a year
28 Culture of poverty90% of children in the inner-city have only one parent. Because of inadequate child services, single mothers must choose between work and raising their childDrug use and dealing are a serious problemCities are also often segregated by ethnicity, with Blacks and Hispanics often living in the inner-city while the suburbs are predominantly white
29 Economic ProblemsWith a high concentration of poor people, the inner city often lacks enough tax money to maintain and improve the neighborhoodsOne solution is to reduce services by closing libraries, under funding schools, etc.Another solution is to collect more taxes by attracting new businesses
31 In 1950, only 20 percent of Americans lived in suburbs In 2000 that percentage has increased to 50%
32 The Peripheral ModelSays an urban area consists of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring roadThese areas lack the problems of the inner city but are characterized by urban sprawl and segregationAround the beltway are areas of consumer and business services called edge cities.Originally residential areas, they grow with the addition malls, office parks, light manufacturing and even specific nodes such as theme parks and warehouses
33 Peripheral Model of Urban Areas Fig : The central city is surrounded by a ring road, around which are suburban areas and edge cities, shopping malls, office parks, industrial areas, and service complexes.
34 As you travel out of a city, the density of residents declines… this change is called a density gradientTwo recent changes to density gradient include a decline in the number of people living in the centerAnd an increase in the density of the outer parts of the city… leading to a reduction in the gradientSuburbs are also characterized by sprawl which is the progressive spread of development over the landscapeIt is created by the desire for many families to own large areas of landIt tends to waste land and limits the ability of city dwellers to get to the country for recreation. It also wastes energy with increased use of automobilesThe other major problem is suburban segregation: 2 waysResidences are separated from commercial and manufacturing activitiesHomes are also separated by social classes as suburban homes exclude low income residents
35 Contribution of Transportation Urban sprawl makes people much more dependent on transportation to meet their basic needsCarsThe explosion of suburban growth is directly related to the growth of automobilesThis has allowed the growth of sprawl as people are able to travel greater distances95 percent of all trips in the US are made by carThis has also led to extensive land use devoted to highways and roads… the average city has one fourth of its land area devoted to roadways
36 Public Transportation Forty percent of all trips made in and out of the CBD are made during four hours of the dayPublic transportation is much better suited for moving large numbers of people, but Americans still prefer carsAmericans lose 36 hours per year and waste 55 gallons of gas in the course of a year sitting in traffic but sinceAmericans value their privacy and flexibility, most continue to avoid public transportationThe one major exception is the use of rapid transit such as subways in New York and BostonEurope takes a much different view and in places such as England, France and Japan people are far more likely to use public transportation