Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 The North. Graphic Overview: Copy down in your notes Causes *greater demand for finished goods. *new inventions *raw materials Transportation."— Presentation transcript:
Graphic Overview: Copy down in your notes Causes *greater demand for finished goods. *new inventions *raw materials Transportation Factory Production Effects * crafts replaced by factory products *industrial cities
I. Revolution in Industry A.Late 1700’s the British develop machinery that takes over work done by hand. B. Machines too expensive for the average person. C. Manufacturing moves from home to factories. D. Industrial Revolution-changed the way good were produced and peoples lives. E. Americans copy and modify British methods. F. British forbid any plans or machinery from leaving England.
SAMUEL SLATER – Englishman who brings the secrets of textile mills to America from England in 1789 1
England made it illegal for textile workers to leave their country with their knowledge of how machines worked 2
II. America’s Revolutionary Leaders A.Samuel Slater- British textile worker who memorized the plans and built a spinning mill in 1790-this began the U.S. revolution. B.Eli Whitney- Conn. Inventor created interchangeable parts. (yes, and the cotton gin). C. Revolution was helped by America’s natural resources: wood, coal, iron, and water power.
III. Building a Transportation Network A.Enormous size of U.S. created a need for transportation. It was expensive. B.A new system of roads was needed. 1. 1794-Lancaster Turnpike linked Philadelphia and Lancaster. First hard-surfaced road in the U.S. 2. Over 10,000 miles of road were built mostly by private companies how charged tolls. C. A Canal Network 1. 1825-NY completed Erie Canal-363 mile waterway joining Buffalo on Lake Erie with Troy and Albany on the Hudson River. Linked Atlantic Coast to the Great Lakes. 2. Made travel less expensive. Manufactured goods were shipped to the western frontier. 3. By 1840, over 3,000 miles of canals were built.
D. Speedy Clipper Ships 1.Fast, sleek, and profitable during the War of 1812 when trade was cut off from England. 2.Could not compete with the steamboat. E. Travel by steamboat 1. Robert Fulton: launched the Clermont the first commercially successful steamboat in 1807. 2. Dominated waterways from 1815-1860. 3. Was replaced by steam railroads.
ROBERT FULTON – given credit for creating the first steamboat – speeds up transportation 5
F. Railroads Revolutionize Travel 1. Developed first in Britain but grew faster in the U.S. 2. 1828-1840-laid 3,300 miles and track. By 1860-30,626 miles of track. 3. Speedy, uncomfortable, and highly used. 4. Fast, direct, and dependable service. 5. Samuel F.B. Morse invented the telegraph in 1837-controlled train traffic. 6. Provided job opportunities including for immigrants and unskilled workers. 7. By the mid-1800’s steam power transformed the industry.
SAMUEL F.B. MORSE – invents the telegraph in 1844, speeds up communication 6
IV. Production Revolutionized A.Most important industrialization took place in the Northeast. 1. Abundant water-used for power. 2. Thriving trade by sea. B. Francis Cabot Lowell 1. Boston merchant 2. 1814-founded textile mill at Waltham, Mass. 3. Combined all steps of textile production under one roof. 4. Built an entire community around his mill. 5. City-Lowell was built which had 52 mills by 1855.
C. Factory Workers Women were paid half as much as men. Working hours were long, and wages were low. Ex.) 12-15 hour work days Earnings: men - $5 per week women - $2 per week children - $ 1 per week * Cities developed as farmers and immigrants took available factory jobs.
D. Women Enter the Factories 1. Farm daughters tried to help their families out by taking jobs at the mills. 2. Paid in cash, lived in boarding houses, and provided social and cultural opportunities. E. Lowell “Mill Girls” 1.Worked 12 hour days, six days a week. 2.Men held the supervisor jobs-paid 85 cents to $2. Women-40 to 80 cents. 3.Looked at factory work as temp. 4.Immigrants eventually take their jobs.
2) Large supply of people willing to work in the factories 7
Most factories after 1830 are powered by steam instead of by rivers 8
Many of the first factories were placed in the New England region for two reasons: 1) Fast moving rivers to supply water for factories 9
INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS – making an item out of parts that are identical and can be mass produced – introduced by Eli Whitney 10
Interchangeable parts had 3 major advantages: 11 1) Sped up production, items could be mass produced
2) Repairs are easier on items, can replace one part 3) Allowed the use of more unskilled labor for lower salary 12
V. Industry Inland 1. Factories-built closer to raw mat. 2. Pittsburgh, Penn-inland industry. Factories focused on metal working. *1819-the Union Rolling Mill invents a way to roll iron to the factory. * Pitts became known as “Iron City.” *The Industrial Revolution forever changed the country.