Presentation on theme: "Section 2-Early Industry Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: Early Industry I can."— Presentation transcript:
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: Early Industry I can examine the changes that took place in transportation in the early 1800s. I can discuss how the Industrial Revolution changed methods of production.
Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
(pages 245–247) A Revolution in Transportation o In the early 1800s, a transportation revolution, including the construction of the Erie Canal, occurred in the Northern states. o This led to great social and economic changes. o In 1806 Congress funded the building of the National Road, a major east-west highway that started in Cumberland, Maryland, and ended in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia).
o This was the largest federally funded transportation project of its time. o Most highway improvements were funded by state and local governments and by private businesses. o In 1807 the steamboat called the Clermont, designed by Robert Fulton, traveled upstream on the Hudson River. o Steamboats made river travel more reliable and upstream travel easier. A Revolution in Transportation (cont.)
o This caused a growth in river travel and canal building. o Railroads were built in America in the early 1800s and helped settle the West and expand trade among the nation’s regions. A Revolution in Transportation (cont.) o They also created national markets by making transportation cheaper and increased the demand for iron and coal.
A New System of Production o The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1700s. o The revolution consisted of several developments in business and industry. o Industry developed quickly in the United States in the early 1800s. o Important factors included free enterprise and the passage of general incorporation laws.
o Industrialization began in the Northeast, where swift-flowing streams powered the factories. o In addition, entrepreneurs and merchants in that region had money to invest in industry. o In 1789 Samuel Slater built a textile machine in Rhode Island. A New System of Production (cont.)
o In 1814 Francis C. Lowell opened several textile mills in northeastern Massachusetts. He started mass production of cotton cloth in the United States. o Many inventions and technological innovations increased the industrial growth in the United States. o Eli Whitney developed the idea of interchangeable parts in the gun-making industry. A New System of Production (cont.) (pages 247–249)
o Machines were able to produce large amounts of identical pieces that workers assembled into finished goods. o Samuel F. B. Morse perfected the telegraph in 1832. o He developed the Morse code for sending messages. o Spurred by journalists, more than 50,000 miles of telegraph wire crossed the country by 1860. A New System of Production (cont.)
o Many city populations doubled or tripled. o The growing cities provided many different occupations. o One fast-growing industry was the publishing industry, which grew to satisfy the growing demand for reading materials. The Rise of Large Cities o Industrialization in the United States in the early to mid-1800s caused many people to move from farms and villages to cities in search of factory jobs and higher wages.
Workers Begin to Organize o During the late 1820s and early 1830s, some factory workers joined labor unions to improve working conditions. o The unions, however, had little power or money to support strikes, or work stoppages. o Thus, the early labor unions had little success. o In 1840 the workday for federal employees was lowered to 10 hours. o In 1842 the Supreme Court ruled that labor strikes were legal.
The Family Farm o During the early 1800s, agriculture was the country’s leading economic activity. o Most people were employed in farming until the late 1800s. o Farming was more important in the South than in the North. o As the North began to focus on manufacturing, the South’s economy continued to depend on agriculture and slavery.