Presentation on theme: "Industrialization and Transportation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Industrialization and Transportation Chapter 3, Section 1
2 Road TransportationThe 13 colonies relied heavily on access to water for transportation and also to support their economies.Overland transportation was costly and inefficient.Some states utilized turnpikes, or toll roads, to help finance better roads.The only road funded well enough was the National Road (since it was funded by the federal government), which ran from Maryland to the Ohio River.
3 Waterways Travel via water also transformed during the early 1800s. The steamboat, invented by Robert Fulton in 1807, made travel upstream easier. They also made it easier for transportation across the ocean.Canals, which linked smaller bodies of water, also increased in number during the early 1800s. These canals helped link farms to major cities.The most famous canal was the Erie Canal, extending from Lake Erie to New York City.The increased access to agricultural goods allowed New York City to emerge as the US’ commercial center.
4 RailroadsThe new type of transportation that emerged during the 1800s was railroads.The technology originated in Great Britain and appeared in the U.S. in the 1820s.They provided several benefits over canals and steamboats:Less costly to buildTravel uphill more easilyCut down even more on transport times.
5 Technological GrowthThe Industrial Revolution came to the United States during the 1800s as well.The first textile mill, built by Samuel Slater, utilized nearby rivers for power. They were also built around the concept of the family system– where whole families would work for the mills.Francis Cabot Lowell employed young women in the first fully functioning mill (one that produced all parts of cloth). He chose young women who had no family ties and provided them with board near the mill. These women were known as Lowell girls.The amount of skill and training needed to work in a factory was reduced. Because of the low requirements, many people moved to cities to find work.
6 Key InventionsSeveral key inventions transformed industry during the 1800s as well.Interchangeable parts= identical components of machines that could be used in place of one another. Invented by Eli Whitney and made production much more efficient.Electric telegraph= utilized a code of dots and dashes to communicate messages. Invented by Samuel Morse and provided almost instantaneous communication.Farming inventions:Steel plow invented by John Deere in 1840Mechanical reaper invented by Cyrus McCormick.
8 The North Embraces Industry In response to Jefferson’s embargo of 1807, the U.S. built their own factories in the North to substitute for the missing British manufactured goods.The North was a good location for factories because:Greater access to capital ($$$)Cheap labor supplyMany rivers to power factoriesSoutherners did not have these advantages, so they were forced to pay high prices for manufactured goods, especially after the passage of the Tariff of 1816.It raised the price of imported goods 20-25%
9 Social Changes in the North The rapid industrialization brought with it many changes to the field of industryLess-skilled workersReduced wages for skilled workersThe North was also home to many social changes that accompanied industrialization.Formation of labor unions– organizations of workers;Creation of a middle class due to increased managerial jobs;Influx of immigrants from northern and western Europe.
10 Southern Agriculture and Society Unlike the North, the South remained predominantly agriculture based in its economy. In the South, cotton emerged as the predominant crop of the region. It was even known as ‘King Cotton’.Invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney;Separated seeds from cotton fiber.Westward expansion to more fertile lands;Industrialization (harvesting cotton).With the dominance of cotton came the continued reliance of the South on slavery for labor.Slaves were needed as plantations grew.As demand increased, small farmers added slaves to increase their supply for market.
11 Cotton’s Effects on Economy and Culture The southern economy flourished when cotton remained profitable.However, when outside forces harmed the cotton crop, the South suffered.Drought;Infestation of boll weevils;Decreases in the price of cotton overseas.The dispersed population of the South was not attractive to investors or immigrants.Education was not seen as important, so Southern white illiteracy also increased.