Presentation on theme: "Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Industry and Transportation Section 1 Summarize the key developments in the transportation revolution of the early."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 25 Section 1 The Cold War Begins Industry and Transportation Section 1 Summarize the key developments in the transportation revolution of the early 1800s. Analyze the rise of industry in the United States in the early 1800s. Describe some of the leading inventions and industrial developments in the early 1800s. Objectives
Section 1 Industry and Transportation turnpike – toll roads chartered by some states, named for the gate that guarded the entrance National Road – successful road made of crushed stone that linked Maryland and the Ohio River Erie Canal – waterway built to link Lake Erie and New York City via the Hudson River Industrial Revolution – historic period that changed how people worked and lived as production shifted from manual labor to the use of machines Terms and People
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Samuel Slater – English emigrant who built America’s first water-powered textile mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1793 Francis Cabot Lowell – merchant who developed an entire industrial system for all stages of manufacturing cloth in the town of Lowell Lowell girls – young girls who worked in Lowell’s mills and lived in strictly supervised boarding houses Terms and People (continued)
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Terms and People (continued) interchangeable parts – the use of identical components that can replace each other, making a machine less expensive to produce or repair Eli Whitney – inventor who introduced the use of interchangeable parts in the United States Samuel F.B. Morse – inventor of the electrical telegraph and Morse Code, a system of dots and dashes used to send messages over metal wires
Section 1 Industry and Transportation How did transportation developments and industrialization affect the nation’s economy? New technology changed the way Americans lived and worked. The United States was set on a course of industrialization.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Water was the most efficient way to move people and goods. Overland transportation was expensive whether by cart, wagon, sleigh, stagecoach, horse or oxen. Moving freight a few dozen miles by land cost as much as shipping the same items across the ocean. The major settlements in the U.S. originally developed along the rivers and harbors of the Atlantic coast.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation States chartered toll roads called turnpikes. Profits were supposed to be used for road improvements but most roads remained in poor condition. Few turnpikes made a profit or really improved the cost or speed of transportation. An exception was the National Road. This route of crushed stone extended from Maryland to the Ohio River in 1818.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Water travel was revolutionized by the steamboat. In 1807, the first practical steamboat, the Clermont, began sailing from New York City. Steamboats shortened a trip up the Mississippi from New Orleans to Louisville from months to mere days. Inventor Robert Fulton and his Clermont
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Now linked to markets in the East, Midwest farmers experienced tremendous growth. Canals linked farms and cities. In 1825, the 363-mile Erie Canal connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River. Shipping costs between Buffalo and New York City plummeted from $100 to $4 per ton. The resulting rise in commerce pushed New York City’s population to 800,000 by 1860.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation The first railroads started in Britain in the 1820s. The United States had 13 miles of track in 1830 and 31,000 miles by 1860. A trip from Detroit to New York City that took 28 days in 1800 took just 2 days by train in 1857. Introduction of railroads provided the most dramatic transportation growth.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Major Canals, Roads, and Railroads, 1840-1850
Section 1 Industry and Transportation In the 1700s, British factories began using machines powered by steam or water to spin thread or weave cloth. This was the start of the Industrial Revolution. Britain tried to prohibit the export of industrial technology. In 1793, Samuel Slater, an English emigrant, built a water- powered mill from memory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell combined all of the steps to manufacture cloth in one location in Waltham, Massachusetts. The Industrial Revolution soon transformed the American economy. Several mills used the family system that employed parents and children who lived in a company-owned village.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation In the 1820s, Lowell built his own factory town of Lowell, Massachusetts. He employed young single girls from area farms. Lowell girls lived in closely supervised boarding houses with strict rules. After several years, most married.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Technology changed how people worked and lived. Work was divided into small tasks, reducing the level of skill or training needed for many jobs. Factory owners profited because unskilled workers were more numerous and could be paid less. In some industries, owners profited by dividing labor even without using new machines.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Interchangeable parts improved efficiency. Rather than a skilled artisan making a single clock or musket, workers made individual components that were later assembled. Eli Whitney produced muskets with standardized parts. A component from one gun fit any other gun. Elias Howe and Isaac Singer also used interchangeable parts to build sewing machines.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation The telegraph sent electrical pulses along metal wires. “Morse Code” used dots and dashes to instantly send information for miles. By 1860, the United States had 50,000 miles of telegraph line. In 1837 Samuel F.B. Morse revolutionized communications with his invention the electric telegraph.
Section 1 Industry and Transportation Agriculture remained America’s chief industry but innovations made farms more productive. New methods More efficient ways to plant, tend, and harvest crops and raise livestock. New inventions John Deere’s steel plow and Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper helped double farm productivity by 1860. New farmland More fertile farms in the Midwest raised production..
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