6 Key Issue #1 Why Do People Migrate? A 19th Century geographer-cartographer, E.G. Ravenstein, wrote about 11 “laws” that became the foundation for migration studies.Ravenstein’s laws are organized into 3 parts:Reasons why migrants moveDistance they typically moveTheir characteristics
7 Reasons for Migrating Reasons for migration: Most people migrate for economic reasonsPush and pull factorsEconomic: people move away from places with poor economic opportunities and toward places with better onesCultural factorsForced migration (e.g., slavery, refugees)Political factorsEnvironmental factors: people move away from hazardous regions to physically attractive regions
8 Refugees: Sources and destinations Fig. 3-1: Major source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees.
10 Why Do People Migrate? Reasons for migration Push and pull factors Intervening obstaclesHistorically, intervening obstacles = environmentalTransportation technology = limited environmental intervening obstacles
11 Distance of MigrationRavenstein’s theories about distance that migrants travel from their home:Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same countryLong-distance migrants to other countries go to major centers of economic activity
12 Distance of Migration Distance of migration International migration-permanent migration from one country to anotherTwo types:VoluntaryForcedMigration transitionInternational migration is most common in countries that are in stage 2 of the demographic transition
13 Distance of Migration Distance of migration Internal migration-permanent movement within the countryTwo types:Interregional migration = movement from one region to anotherUsually from rural to urban areas in search of jobsIntraregional migration = movement within a regionTypically happens in urban areas when people move from older cities to newer suburbs
14 Global Migration Patterns Fig. 3-2: The major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
15 Characteristics of Migrants Most long-distance migrants areMaleAdultsIndividualsFamilies with children = less common
16 Why Do People Migrate? Characteristics of migrants Gender Traditionally, males outnumbered femalesIn the United States today, 55 percent of immigrants = femaleFamily statusIn the United States today, about 40 percent of immigrants = young adults, aged 25–39
17 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Key Issue #2Where Are Migrants Distributed?
18 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Global migration patternsNet out-migration: Asia, Africa, and Latin AmericaNet in-migration: North America, Europe, and OceaniaThe United States has the largest foreign-born population
22 Migration from Asia to the U.S. Fig. 3-5: Migration in The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
23 Migration to the United States from Latin America Figure 3-6
24 Undocumented Immigration: Mexico to Arizona Fig. 3-7: The complex route of one group of undocumented migrants from a small village north of Mexico City to Phoenix, Arizona.
25 U.S. States as Immigrant Destinations Fig. 3-8: California is the destination of about 25% of all U.S. immigrants; another 25% go to New York and New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
26 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Impact of immigration on the United StatesLegacy of European migrationEurope’s demographic transitionStage 2 growth pushed Europeans out65 million Europeans emigrateDiffusion of European culture
27 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Impact of immigration on the United StatesUnauthorized immigration2008 = estimated 11.9 million unauthorized/ undocumented immigrantsAbout 5.4 percent of the U.S. civilian labor forceAround 59 percent are undocumented immigrants from Mexico
28 Where Are Migrants Distributed? Impact of immigration on the United StatesDestinationsCalifornia = one-fifth of all immigrants and one-fourth of undocumented immigrantsNew York = one-sixth of all immigrantsChain migration
29 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Key Issue #3Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?
30 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Immigration policies of host countriesU.S. quota laws:The Quota Act (1921)The National Origins Act (1924)For each country that had native-born people in the U.S., 2% of their # could immigrate each year.These laws were designed to ensure that most immigrants to the U.S. continued to be Europeans.
31 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Immigration policies of host countriesU.S. quota laws:Immigration Act of 1965eliminated quotas for individual countries and created hemisphere quotas instead (by 1968).Global quotas of 290,000 with country max of 20,000 created (by 1978).Current global quota is 620,000 with no more than 7% from one country.However, there are many qualifications and exceptions that can change the limit.Quotas don’t apply to refugees or spouses, parents, or children of U.S. citizens.
32 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Brain drainLarge-scale emigration by talented people.Temporary migration for workGuest workersUsually citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe or the Middle East.Time-contract workersRecruited for a specific job and time period
33 Guest Workers in Europe Fig. 3-9: Guest workers emigrate mainly from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of Western Europe.
34 Emigration from ChinaFig. 3-10: Various ethnic Chinese peoples have distinct patterns of migration to other Asian countries.
35 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Distinguishing economic migrants from refugeesEmigrants from CubaEmigrants from HaitiEmigrants from VietnamSee pgs for details
36 Migration of Vietnamese Boat People Fig. 3-11: Many Vietnamese fled by sea as refugees after the war with the U.S. ended in Later boat people were often considered economic migrants.
37 Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Cultural problems faced while living in host countriesU.S. attitudes towards immigrantsAttitudes toward guest workers
38 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Key Issue #4Why Do People Migrate Within a Country?
39 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Migration between regions of a countryU.S. settlement patternsColonial settlementEarly settlement in the interior (early 1800s)CaliforniaGold Rush in the 1840sGreat Plains settlementRecent growth of the South
40 Center of Population in the U.S. Fig. 3-12: The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the population migration west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.
42 Interregional Migration in the U.S. Fig. 3-13: Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2000.
43 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Migration between regions of other countriesRussiaKomsomolGovernment incentives in Brazil and IndonesiaEconomic migration within European countriesRestricted migration in India
45 Why Do People Migrate Within a Country? Intraregional migration in the United StatesMigration from rural to urban areasPrimary reason = economic migrationMigration from urban to suburban areasPrimary reason = suburban lifestyleMigration from urban to rural areasCounterurbanization
46 Intraregional Migration in the U.S. Fig. 3-14: Average annual migration among urban, suburban, and rural areas in the U.S. during the 1990s. The largest flow was from central cities to suburbs.