Presentation on theme: "2:1 The Meaning of Culture Bell Ringer: Interpreting the visual pg"— Presentation transcript:
1 2:1 The Meaning of Culture Bell Ringer: Interpreting the visual pg 2:1 The Meaning of Culture Bell Ringer: Interpreting the visual pg. 26 EQ: What is the meaning of culture?
2 The San of South Africa Hunter gatherers Small groups Cooperation Rock painters
3 Physical objects, beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by human groups
4 Material World Material Culture Physical objects/tangible items that members of society make, use, and shareRaw Materials → Technology → StuffAzerbaijan
5 Material World Non-Material Culture Abstract/intangible human creations of society that influence people’s behaviorLanguage, beliefs, values, rules of behavior, family patterns, political systems
6 What’s the Difference?Society-interdependent group of people who share culture and unityCulture-material/nonmaterial products those people create
7 5 Components of CulturePeople of a culture share a broad set of material and nonmaterial elements5 components of CultureTechnologySymbolsLanguageValuesNorms
8 5 Components of Culture 1. Technology Manmade products (material culture) that make life easierRules of acceptable behavior when using material culture
9 Components of Culture 2. Symbols Basis of human cultureAnything that represents something elseHas a recognized, shared meaningGestures, images, sounds, physical objects, events, etc.
10 Components of Culture 3. Language Organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system that can express any idea
11 Components of Culture 4. Values Shared beliefs about what is good/bad, right/wrong, desirable/undesirableDetermines character of people, kinds of material/non culture they createYanomamo
12 Components of Culture 5. Norms Shared rules of conduct, expectations for behaviorWide range of importance in norms: covering mouth to don’t killSome norms are selective: marriage, alcohol consumption, police
13 Norms Folkways v. MoresFolkways-norms that describe socially acceptable behavior w/o great moral significance, do not endanger the well being or stability of societyMinor punishment for breaking a folkway norm
14 Norms Folkways v. Mores Mores-great moral significance Violation of these norms endangers society’s well being and stabilityBernie Madoff, Edward Snowden
15 LawsEstablished punishments for violating norms to protect the social well beingWritten rules of conduct enacted and enforced by the governmentMores laws: murder, rape, theft, etc.Folkway laws: parking tickets, jaywalking
16 Culture is Dynamic Continually changing New material objects:New expressions:
17 Levels of CultureCulture Trait- individual tool, act or belief that is related to a particular situation or need: types of eating utensils/appropriate greetingsCulture Complexes- cluster of interrelated traits. Football (Complex) items needed to play, rules, business (traits)Culture Patterns- combination of a number of culture complexes into an interrelated whole: American Athletic Pattern
18 AssignmentUsing the diagram on pg. 27, create a visual for one of the following cultural patterns of our society:AgricultureEducationFamily lifeManufacturingReligion
19 2:2 Cultural VariationBell Ringer: Interpreting the visual pg. 31
20 Cultural UniversalsFeatures, common to all cultures, that fulfill basic human needs
21 1940 George Murdock Identified 65 Cultural Universals Nature of universal traits varies widelyExample-FamilyCultural Universal-purpose is to add new members of society and care for them until they can care for themselves, introduce children to components of cultureCultural Variation-the composition of a family
22 1930 Margaret Meade Study on Cultural variation Purpose-determine whether differences in basic temperament is inherited or learnedStudied the cultural differences between the Arapesh and the MundugumorConclusion: temperament is the result of culture rather than biology
23 Arapesh v. Mundugamor Extreme Cultrual Variations-Why? Arapesh Hunters/gathers/mountains/scarce foodMundugamorLots of food/river valleys/”easy” life
24 Ethnocentrism Viewing one’s own culture and group as superior Having a negative response to cultural traits very different from our ownPositive-builds group unityNegative-culture can stagnate because we exclude people, and influences that might be beneficial
25 Cultural RelativismBelief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another cultureUnderstanding cultural practices from the points of view of the members of the society being studiedExample: Cows in India
26 2:1 Activity Mancala Tournament People of many races and ethnic groups often enjoy the same entertainments. For example, a board game called mancala is popular in many countries, including the U.S. Mancala is possible the oldest board game in the world. Egyptians played the counting and strategy game before 1400 B.C. Like being a sports star in the U.S., being a “Mancala” star carries much cultural significance in other societies.
27 SubcultureGroup whose values, norms and behaviors are not shared by entire populationExample: ChinatownSame: education, democracy, role in economyDifferent: living/shopping patterns, language, food, etc.
28 Functional Subcultures Subcultures by profession, age, gender, religion, ethnicity don’t threaten the stability of society and prevent society from becoming stagnat
29 Counterculture Challenge the values of the alrger society Reflects major values, norms and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patternsExamples: mafia, cults, 60s hippies