3 Culture Culture: The shared products of human groups The physical objects and the beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group.Material Culture: The physical objects that people createAutomobiles, books, buildings, clothing, music, computers, cooking utensils, etc.Nonmaterial Culture: Abstract human creationsBeliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems, rules, skills, work practices
4 Society v. CulturePeople tend to use society and culture interchangeably, but they aren’t interchangeable.Society: A group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity.Society consists of peopleCulture consists of the material and nonmaterial products that people create.
5 The Components of Culture Technology: Knowledge and tools people use for practical reasons.Sociologists are not only interested in skills, but also in the rules of acceptable behavior when using material culture.Ex. Computer hacking, illegal internet sites, texting, sexting, T.V chips, mod chips in video game consoles.
6 The Components of Culture Symbols: Anything that represents something else.What are some symbols here at school? In the community? In the country?
7 The Components of Culture Language: The organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system.We all speak the American form of English, but do we all speak it the same way?
8 The Components of Culture Chevy Nova is not selling in Spanish speaking countries because No Va = It won’t go in Spanish…John F. Kennedy..Ich bin ein Berliner…Other examples?
9 The Components of Culture Gestures- the way people use their bodies to communicate- hand, face, body language.Vary widely from culture to culture.
10 The Components of Culture Values: Shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable.The types of values held by a group help to determine the character of its people and the kinds of material and nonmaterial culture they create.
11 Cultural Comparison Yanomamo- Border of Brazil and Venezuela Warfare and feats of male strength common.30% of all deaths of males are from wounds sustained in battle.Farming villages can support 500 to 1,000 people, but the Yanomamo can only support 200 at a time.War splits the village into new settlements.
12 Cultural Comparison San- Society based on cooperation. The San groups have their own territories and they don’t trespass on other land.All take part in search for food, except old, very young, sick.The game they hunt is shared throughout the group.
13 ValuesNorms: Shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations.Norms are expectations for behavior not actual behavior!Norms range from the unimportant to the very importantWhat are some unimportant norms?What are some important norms?
14 NormsAre all norms specific to all people and all locations across the country?Sociologists distinguish between two types of norms;FolkwaysMores (MAWR-ayz)
15 FolkwaysNorms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance attached to them.They outline the common customs of everyday life.Don’t put food in your mouth with a knife.Don’t let the American flag touch the ground when raising and lowering it.Shake hands when introduced to someone.Hold doors for women.Don’t spitDon’t burp after meals.
16 Mores Norms that have great moral significance attached to them. Dishonesty, fraud, murder
17 Laws Written rules of conduct enacted and enforced by the government. Laws enforce mores (rape, theft, murder, arson) as well as folkways (not parking in handicap spaces).
18 Three Levels of Culture Culture TraitCultureComplexCulture Pattern
19 Culture TraitsAn individual tool, act, or belief that is related to a particular situation or need.Using knives, forks, and spoons when eating.Greeting a friend by saying “Hi”, but being more formal when meeting a human-resource manager at a job interview.
20 Culture ComplexesCulture traits combine to form the next level- culture complexes.A culture complex is a cluster of interrelated traits.Ex. Football, think of…material traits (football, chains, cleats, helmets, pads, first-aid kits, benches), specific acts (kicking, passing ,tackling, running, catching), specific beliefs (rules followed, penalties for rule violations, etc.), and sport culture (marketing, T.V. rights, advertising, financing).
21 Culture PatternsCulture complexes combine to form larger levels called culture patterns.Culture patterns are the combination of a number of culture complexes into an interrelated whole.
22 Culture PatternsThe complexes of baseball, basketball, football, soccer, swimming, tennis, etc. combine to form the American athletic pattern.Other patterns include; agriculture, education, family life, religion.
23 Culture VariationsBasic needs that all societies must develop to ensure fulfillment of basic needs.Cultures can be different, but people have basic needs that need to be met.Humans have the ability to meet those needs in a vast number of ways.
24 Murdock’s Cultural Universals George Murdock- Anthropologist.What general traits are common to all cultures?Identified 65 cultural universals.*Body Adornment *Religion*Family *Dancing*Language *Music*Myths/folklore *Sports*Funeral ceremonies
25 EthnocentrismThe tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior.People in all societies are, at times, ethnocentric.The belief that the characteristics of one’s group or society are right and good helps build group unity.
26 EthnocentrismAt times, belief of the superiority of a society results from technological advances that make one group see others as inferior.When ethnocentrism, becomes extreme, culture can stagnate.By limiting the pool of acceptable members, groups and societies run the risk of excluding new influences that might prove beneficial.
27 Cultural RelativismThe belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture.In other words, people who practice cultural relativism attempt to understand cultural practices from the points of view of the members of the society being studied.Cultural relativism helps sociologists understand practices that seem strange or different from those of their own culture.Ex. Cows in IndiaCows play a vital role in feeding people in India, even though they are not eaten.Cows provide power for plowing, which prepares the land for planting.Cows provide milk, an important part of the Indian diet.
28 Variation Within Society Cultural variations exist among societies and also within societies.Variation within a society come from different cultural subgroups.Subculture: A group with its own unique values, norms, and behaviors that exists within a larger culture.What are some examples of subcultures at NRHS? The United States?
30 SubculturesMost subcultures do not reject all of the values and practices of the larger society.Ex. Students who live in Chinatown in San Francisco still have many broad American cultural traits.Ex. going to public schools, playing with American toys, and working similar jobs.At the same time, they celebrate Chinese New Year and have different traditions and customs outside of American culture.
31 CountercultureIn some instances, subcultural practices are consciously intended to challenge the values of the larger society.Sometimes a group rejects the major values, norms and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns.These groups are called counterculturesEx. anarchists, hippies, organized crime families, etc.