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Chapter 2: Cultural diversity

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1 Chapter 2: Cultural diversity
Mrs. Hansen/ Sociology Chapter 2: Cultural diversity

2 Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
What is Culture? Material Vs. Non material Cars, clothes, computers, cell phones, books, buildings Beliefs, family patterns, ideas, language, political and economic systems

3 Society Vs. Culture Sociologist distinguish between the two
Society =people Culture= material and non material products that people create

4 Components of Culture:
Technology Symbols Language Values Norms

5 Technology Physical objects and the rules for using those objects
Using tools requires knowledge of various skills Sociologist interested in skills but the rules of acceptable behavior when using material culture

6 Symbols Through symbols we create culture and communicate it to group members and future generations Symbols have a shared meaning attached to them Any word, gesture, image, sound, physical object, event, or element of the natural world Everyone must understand the symbol in order for it to have meaning!

7 Language: Organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system Used daily to communicate and express ideas

8 Values: Shared Beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable The type of value held by a group help to determine the character of its people and the kinds of material and nonmaterial culture they create The Yanomamo and the San people

9 Norms Shared rules of conduct that tell people how act in specific situations These are expectations for behavior not the actual behavior Norms range in importance Covering your mouth when you yawn Don’t kill another human being Some apply to everyone others apply to select groups Marriage

10 Folkways Mores Laws Norms without great moral significance
Norms with a lot of moral significance Laws Written norms enacted and enforced by governments that must be followed

11 Examining Culture Norms are Dynamic instead of Static
Sociologists break down culture into levels and studying them separately Three Levels Culture Traits Culture Complexes Culture Patterns

12 Culture Traits Simplest level of culture
An individual tool, act, or belief that is related to a particular situation or need. Using utensils when eating Specific greetings when meeting people

13 Culture Complexes: Individual Culture traits combine to form complexes
A cluster of interrelated traits Example = Football The ball, measuring chain, gear, and benches are the material traits Kicking, passing, running, catching, blocking and tackling are the acts of football There are also beliefs like following the rules, etc. In an industrial society a variety of Complexes exist and can be studied

14 Culture Patterns Complexes combine to form patterns
The combination of a number of culture complexes Example= Football, baseball, basketball, soccer, swimming, tennis and track combine to form the American athletic pattern Other examples are related to specific areas of society Agriculture, religion, education, family life, and manufacturing

15 All of these combine to form a society’s culture!!!

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