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CHAPTER 2 Cultural Diversity

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1 CHAPTER 2 Cultural Diversity
Sociology 4/19/2017 CHAPTER 2 Cultural Diversity Section 1: The Meaning of Culture Section 2: Cultural Variation Chapter 2

2 Objectives: Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
Define the meaning of the term culture and explain how material culture and non- material culture differ. Identify and describe the basic components of culture.

3 Culture Section 1: The Meaning of Culture
Culture – consists of all the shared products of human groups which include physical objects, beliefs, values, and behaviors shared by a group Material Culture – are physical objects that people create and use such as books, buildings, clothing, and cooking Nonmaterial Culture – are abstract human creations that include beliefs, family patterns, ideas, and language

4 Basic Components of Culture
Section 1: The Meaning of Culture Basic Components of Culture Technology – physical objects and rules for using them Symbols – anything that represents something else and has a shared meaning Language – the organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system Values – shared beliefs about what is good and bad or right or wrong Norms – shared rules of conduct

5 Objectives: Section 2: Cultural Variation
Describe cultural universals and explain why they exist. Explain what the terms ethnocentrism and cultural relativism mean. Identify factors that account for variations among and within cultures.

6 Cultural Universals Section 2: Cultural Variation
Cultural universals – general traits common to all cultures Exist because some needs are so basic that all societies must develop certain features to ensure their fulfillment

7 Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
Section 2: Cultural Variation Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism – the tendency to view one’s own culture and group as superior to other different cultures Cultural Relativism – belief that a culture should be judged by its own standards rather than by those of another culture

8 Factors That Account for Variations Among and Within Cultures
Section 2: Cultural Variation Factors That Account for Variations Among and Within Cultures Subculture – shared values, norms and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population Counterculture – rejection of the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replacing them with a new set of cultural values

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