What is going on in the cartoon? This is an example of Deforestation. As the human population grows, so does the demand for Earth’s resources
Earth’s human carrying capacity is unknown Technology has helped to increase Earth’s carrying capacity. –gas-powered farm equipment –medical advancements –clean water –public assistance
Over 6.6 billion people Many natural resources are nonrenewable – Fossil fuels take millions of years to form More people means: – 1) More forests removed – 2) More resources consumed – 3) More CO 2 released
Nonrenewable resources are used faster than they can form or be replenished: – Coal – Oil – Natural Gas Renewable resources cannot be used up or can replenish themselves over time : – Wind – Solar – Water MUST BE MANAGED EFFECTIVELY!!!
An ecological footprint is the amount of land needed to support a person. The land must produce and maintain enough –food and water –shelter –energy –Waste –Several factors effect size: –Amount/efficiency of resource used –Amount/toxicity of waste produced
Ozone Layer Depletion Ozone Function: Block UV radiation from sun Problems: – CFCs thinning the ozone layer – More UV radiation reaches the surface Effects: Crop damage, skin cancers, Eye damage Solution: Reduce CFCs, regrow trees UV Ozone layer CFCs UV
The Smog and Ground-Level Ozone Reason: – Burning of fossil fuels & industry Problems: – Respiratory illness – Ozone gas is poisonous Causes: – Particulates rise into air and react with sunlight to make air pollution Solutions: – Reduce use of fossil fuels – alternative energy sources – Plant trees
The Greenhouse Effect G.H.E. is naturally good (it warms Earth) Problem: Excess heat trapped near the earth’s surface Fear: Climate patterns change, ice caps melt Main Cause: CO 2 from burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) Solutions: Reduce use of fossil fuels, regrow trees, alternative energy sources
What’s in a name? The purpose of a greenhouse is to trap heat year round
Earth heat Some heat escapes into space Some heat naturally trapped by Earth’s atmosphere
Excess CO2 in atmosphere Less heat escapes into space More heat trapped near Earth’s surface
The Greenhouse Effect is naturally GOOD! Mars: No Greenhouse Effect Little heat is trapped by the thin CO 2 atmosphere. High temperatures can be around 20⁰F. Earth: Balanced Greenhouse Effect Average global temperature is 57⁰F. Venus: The Extreme Greenhouse Effect Heat is trapped by the thick CO 2 atmosphere. Temperatures reach 750⁰F.
Defined: Precipitation with a below normal pH Cause: – Fossil fuel pollution rises into the air & then falls as rain Effect: – Waterways more acidic – Kills plant and animal life Solutions: – Reduce fossil fuel usage – Add buffer (base) to waterways
Defined: pollution in water supplies Reasons: – Waste – Medicines – Agricultural Runoff – fertilizers – pesticides Problems: – Species lost – Ecosystems harmed Indicator species give sign of ecosystems health ex: amphibians Solutions: – Manage waste
Biomagnification = accumulation of toxins in the food chain. Pollutants that are fat soluble can move up the food chain. – These pollutants stay in the body fat of an organism – predators eat contaminated prey Top consumers, including humans, are most affected.
Deforestation Defined: Clearing of forested areas Reasons: – High demand for wood products – Create farmland Problems: – Species lost – Excess CO 2 released Solutions: – Recycle – Improved farming techniques
Introduced (& Invasive) Species Defined: Foreign organisms are introduced to a new habitat –I–Invasive- harms native species Reason: –P–Pet industry, “free ride” organisms, pest control Effects: –F–Foreign species outcompete native species –F–Food webs unbalanced –E–Economic damage Solutions: –L–Laws preventing foreign goods into new countries –I–Introduce predators
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created in 1970 Works to protect species Clean Water Act Clean Air Act Endangered Species Act (this recovered the bald eagle) Those listed are called “Umbrella Species” o Entire habitats protected