8 Smog (“smoke & fog”) …air pollution in cities that reduces visibility Caused by a chem. rxn with: sunlight & pollutants (from cars & industries mostly)Cities in warmer regions are more likely to have smog
10 What is acid rain?…precipitation with a pH below 5.6
11 What causes acid rain?Gases in the air chemically reacts with the water vapor or precipitation forming an acid.***the gases come from burning fossil fuels-gases like nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc…
12 How does acid rain affect ecosystems? Makes bodies of water more acidic.* affects the organisms in the water.2) Changes the pH of soil, causes problems for the plants.
18 What is the Greenhouse Effect? …a process where heat from the sun is trapped at the surface of Earth by gases in the atmosphere
19 What causes the Greenhouse Effect? …the large amount of “greenhouse gases” put into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels and other activities.
20 What are the common “greenhouse gases”? Water vaporCFC’sMethaneNitrous oxide
21 How has the temperature of Earth changed over time? As CO2 levels have increased greatly over the last 100+ years, so has the average temperature on Earth.Over thousands of years the pattern has been the same, increasing CO2 has caused in increase in temperature.
22 What changes may result from the Greenhouse Effect? Hurricanes – more & stronger hurricanes due to increasing ocean temperatures.
23 2) Drought & flooding – more rain in areas that used to get very little & less rain in other areas. 3) Agriculture – areas that used for farming may change making those areas less useful.
30 What is ozone? …O3 …found in the stratosphere …protects Earth from ultraviolet (UV) radiation
31 Damage to the Ozone CFC’s – (chlorofluorocarbons) * found in refrigerants, aerosol propellants, making styrofoam* new laws regulating them, so CFC’s are not really used anymore.* CFC’s break up Ozone in the stratosphere
32 2) Ozone hole / thinning …thinning at the poles, by as much as 98%. *due to the damage from CFC’s