3 Population All the members of a species living in a given area Human population has exploded over the last couple centuriesdue to improved health care, clean water, etc
4 Carrying CapacityThe largest number of individuals of a given species that Earth’s resources can support and maintain for a long period of timepopulations that exceed carrying capacity will begin to die off due to lack of resources (food, water, space)
6 Humans Using Land - Forest Resources Trees are cut down to make wood and paper products, and to clear land for developmentDeforestationremoval of large area of forests for human purposes
7 Effects of Deforestation Habitat destructionSoil erosionplant roots hold soil in place; without plants the soil erodes awayAir qualityless oxygen and more carbon dioxide in the air
8 Humans Using Land - Agriculture Large areas of land cleared for farming and cattle grazingEffects of AgricultureFertilizersadd excess nitrogen to the soilpollute groundwaterDesertificationthe development of desert-like conditions due to human activitiescan occur due to soil erosion and/or over farming
9 Humans Using Land - Mining Removal of rocks and minerals from the groundEffects of Miningdisturbing habitatschanges the landscapewater pollution from runoff
10 Construction and Development Urbanizationthe movement of human populations into citiesUrban Sprawlthe development of land for houses and other buildings near a cityEffects of Urbanizationhabitat destructionreduced water quality due to increased runoff
11 Positive actions Preservation Governments can protect land by setting aside wild areasThere are laws about how the resources there can be removedForests are complex but they can be managed to preserve the ecosystemSelect-cutting- only certain trees in one area are cut down rather than lots of trees or all the treesReforestation- replanting trees that have been cut or burned downReclamation- restoring land that has been disturbed by mining
12 Positive actions Green Spaces Cities use green spaces to create natural environments in urban settingsThey provide places for recreation for people and habitat for wildlifeThey reduce runoff and improve air quality as plants take up extra carbon dioxide
13 Positive actions Reusing, Reducing, & Recycling Composting Reduces the amount of trash that ends up in landfills.It involves mixing food scraps, leaves, and grass clippings and adding the decayed product to soil.
15 Water as a Resourcemost water is used in power plants to generate electricity
16 Sources of Water Pollution Point-Source PollutionNonpoint-Source Pollutionpollution from a single source that can be identifiedex. oil spills, mining runoffpollution from several widespread sources that cannot be traced to a single locationex. agricultural and urban runoffMost of the United States’ water pollution is nonpoint-source
17 Positive Actions National Initiatives: How You Can Help: Clean Water Actregulates sources of water pollutionSafe Drinking Water Actprotects supplies of drinking throughout the countryHow You Can Help:Reduce use of harmful chemicalsDispose of waste safelyConserve water
19 Types of Air Pollution - Smog nitrogen and carbon compounds are released from burning fossil fuelsthese compounds react with sunlight to make ozone and other chemicals
20 Types of Air Pollution – Acid Rain rain or snow that has a lower pH than that of normal rainwatermakes soil more acidic, making it difficult for plants to survive
21 Other Types of Air Pollution Particulate Mattermix of both solid and liquid particles in the airex. smoke, dustCFCsdestroy ozone moleculesCarbon Monoxidereleased from cars and forest fires
22 Global Warmingburning fossil fuels releases excess amounts of carbon dioxide into the airthis can lead to an increase in Earth’s average surface temperature
23 Effects of Global Warming Melting of ice caps and a rise in sea levelMore storms due to higher ocean temperaturesExtinction of cold-weather species
24 The Greenhouse EffectThe natural process that occurs when gases in the atmosphere absorb and reradiate thermal energy from the SunIncreased carbon dioxide traps more heat in the atmosphere
25 Health DisordersAir pollution can cause respiratory problems, including asthma attacks, in which the passageways in the lungs become narrower and breathing becomes difficult.The government measures and reports air quality using the Air Quality Index, which is a scale that ranks the level of ozone and other pollutants.
26 Positive actions Montreal Protocol Clean Air Act Countries around the world have agreed to phase out CFC’s and to lower emissions of green house gases to help reduce problems due to Air pollutionClean Air ActSince it was passed in 1970, we have seen a 50% reduction in pollutants that cause acid rain and a 90% reduction in air pollution from factories.
27 Positive actions Using Renewable Energy Using Less Energy Renewable resources such as solar power, wind power, and geothermal energy helps reduce air pollutionUsing Less EnergyHelps reduce pollution and improve the quality of all our important resources: water, air, soil