4 Geographers are guided by two basic questions: Where are things located???Why are they there???
5 To find the answers, geographers use themes to organize information Location: where a point existsPlace: a location’s physical and human featuresHuman Environment interaction: how people affect their environmentMovement: How goods, ideas, and people get from one place to anotherRegions: Large areas that are linked by similar characteristics
6 Location Absolute location Relative location A places exact position on Earth (geographic address)Uses latitude and longitudeRelative locationExplains where a place is by describing places near it.“I live in Bismarck, 190 miles west of Fargo”
7 Location Lines of Latitude: Parallels: Degrees: Equator: East-West circles around the globeParallels:Another name for lines of latitude, because they are parallel to one anotherDegrees:Unit used to measure location on mapsEquator:A parallel in the middle of the globe
8 Location Lines of Longitude: Meridians: Prime Meridian: Lines that circle the globe from North-SouthMeridians:Another name for lines of LongitudeAll run through the North and South PolesPrime Meridian:Runs though Greenwich, EnglandIs 0 degrees longitude
9 Latitude and Longitude Measured North and South of EquatorLongitudeMeasured East and West of Prime Meridian(Greenwich, England)Measured in degrees, minutes, secondsDegree milesMinute milesSecond feet
10 Place Physical features Human features Climate - hot or cold Land is hillyHuman featuresHow many people live thereWhat these people do
11 Human - Environment Interaction How have people learned to survive in the area?How do they deal with the environment?Are they helping or hurting the environment?
12 Movement Helps people understand cultural changes Goods and people move: bringing their culture with themImmigrants to America
13 Regions Used to make comparisons Deserts, forests, plains, mountains A region of flat land
14 The Geographer’s Tools Section 2The Geographer’s Tools
15 Maps Globe Scale Flat maps The most accurate description Hard to carry aroundScaleSize of an area on a map compared to the actual size of an area (1 in= 100 miles)Flat mapsEasy to carry aroundShows some distortion. (misrepresentation)Change in the accuracy of the shapes and distances
16 MapsProjection - method of putting a map of the Earth onto a flat piece of paperMercator ProjectionGerardus MercatorFlat map - used by sailorsShows correct shapes of landmasses, but not true distances or sizesRobinson ProjectionArthur RobinsonBest world map availableDistorted around the edgesWAS Official projection for National Geographic – now Winkle Tripel
17 More Maps Interrupted projection map Distortion “Orange Peel”Hard to figure distances correctlyDistortionFlat maps distort land masses because the Earth is round.Subject of a Map = Title
18 Parts of a map Compass rose Key Grid Shows the cardinal directions: north, south, east, and west.Key“legend” explains the symbols for features such as roads and cities.GridHelps people find things on the mapParallels and meridiansLetters and numbers