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The First National Government Pages 31-34

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1 The First National Government Pages 31-34
Chapter 2 Section 3 The First National Government Pages 31-34

2 Objectives 1. Describe the powers of the national government under the Articles of Confederation. Explain how limits on its power weakened the national government under the Articles. Describe the states’ struggle for unity after independence. Explain how Shay’s Rebellion highlighted the need for a stronger national government.

3 Activity How would you feel if these 13 students alone had the power to decide such issues as what was studied, how homework and tests were graded, and who sat in which seats. What would be some problems with this system?

4 Articles of Confederation
1781-The Revolutionary War ended with the Battle of Yorktown . The real work was to begin with the forming of a national government. The Articles of Confederation made it difficult and created pressure for a national government. The Second Continental Congress held the 13 states together during the war.

5 The Congress appointed George Washington as commander in chief of the army in Congress also created a national currency, negotiated treaties with foreign countries, borrowed money, and established a postal service. 1777-Articles of Confederation loosely tied together the 13 states. The Articles required the ratification or formal approval. Maryland was the last state to ratify the Articles in The Articles of Confederation limited the powers of the national government.

6 Powers of the new government lay in a unicameral legislature: the Congress.
A. delegates were chosen by state legislature. B. delegation had one vote. C. Majority approval required to make decisions. D. No national executive or judicial branch E. Congress had the power to declare war and conduct foreign policy. Benjamin Franklin and John Adams U. S. representatives to France.

7 Limits on Power: No president or executive branch No national court system No officials to enforce laws No power to tax No power to regulate trade No standing military Laws required 9 out of 13 states.

8 Obstacles to Unity Resurface
Cultural Differences: Beliefs were different from state, especially in the area of religion. Some thought a strong unified government might force some to give up their beliefs. Cultural Perspective: Americans were separated by both geographic and cultural distances. Because of bad roads and unreliable transportation, mail, and other sources of new could take an entire month to travel the 300 miles from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. New England fishers could not always relate to the needs of southern farmers. Reconciling such differences would prove difficult when state leaders forged a new national government.

9 Economic Differences: Economic interests of certain regions would win unfair advantages under a strong national government. Slavery was an economic and cultural issue. Southern states feared if a strong national government were to oppose slavery, their economic livelihood would suffer.

10 Geographic Isolation: size of a new nation also made it difficult to form ties among the states. Transportation between northern and southern states was not quick.

11 Pressure for Stronger Government
The independence of many of the states were becoming a problem for the young United States. September 1786: Virginia representatives organized a convention in Maryland. Only five states showed up to participate. The group determined they needed to meet to make changes to the Articles. May 1787: the states agreed to meet in Philadelphia to revise the Articles. No mention of writing a new constitution.

12 1786- Armed rebellion in Massachusetts was proof that a strong national government was needed to provide order and public good. Groups of armed farmers trying to prevent the state from seizing property from people who could not pay their debts. Became known as Shay’s Rebellion, after Daniel Shay. The rebellion was put down by force. The concern was maintaining order during peacetime.

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