Presentation on theme: "9/18 Bellringer What was the biggest advantage the American colonists had during the Revolutionary War? What was the biggest advantage that Great."— Presentation transcript:
1 9/18 BellringerWhat was the biggest advantage the American colonists had during the Revolutionary War?What was the biggest advantage that Great Britain had during the Revolutionary War?Based on this chart, who should win the war?
2 North America 1754North America 1763North America 1783
3 The American republic would be a more “enlightened” version of the Roman Senate When Americans declared independence in 1776, they needed to form a new governmentThey wanted to form a republic where citizens vote for elected leaders to represent themThey wanted to protect citizens & individual states from a powerful national governmentKing George III
4 When independence was declared, the 13 colonies became independent states Each state had its own constitution, legislature, & an elected governor; 8 states had Bills of RightsBut, the USA needed a national gov’t to do things that states could not, like sign treaties & form a militaryAmerica’s 1st national gov’t was the Articles of Confederation ( )
5 This “confederation” style gov’t loosely connected the states under a weak national government
6 To pass a law, 9 of the 13 states had to agree Each state could send between 2-7 representatives to the national congress, but each state had only 1 voteTo pass a law, 9 of the 13 states had to agreeConfederation Government in New York CityThe national congress could make laws, settle disputes between states, negotiate treaties, handle Indian affairs, oversee a militaryBut all other powers were left up to the states
7 So, the national gov’t had Americans did not want to re-create a powerful gov’t like the one they just fought the Revolutionary War to break away fromSo, the national gov’t hadno president & could not tax the states or citizensConfederation Government in New York City
8 Western Lands, 1783Western Land Claims, 1783The lands between the Appalachian Mountains & Mississippi River that were acquired from the British in 1783 were claimed by numerous states. Many of these land claims overlap.
9 The Articles established a good system of settling western lands The United States, 1783Areas of Settlement, 1783The Articles established a good system of settling western lands
10 Western Land Claims Ceded by the States First, states had cede (give up) their claims to lands in the west to the national gov’tThe “West” presented a problem:Many states had overlapping land claims in the WestSome “landless” states (MD, NJ, DE) wanted part of West & refused to ratify the Articles without this issue resolvedThe US gov’t negotiated treaties with Indians to gain land in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky
11 Congress passed the Land Ordinance of to create an orderly way to divide the west into townships & farmsSelling western lands was the only way the national gov’t could generate money since it did not have the power to tax
12 Section 16 of the each township was set aside for a public school Land Ordinance of 1785Section 16 of the each township was set aside for a public school
13 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 gave government to the territoriesWhen a territory had 5,000 residents, it could create a self-governing legislatureWhen a territory had 60,000 residents, it could apply to become a U.S. stateSlavery was outlawed in the NW
14 The Articles of Confederation was America’s 1st form of gov’t The weakness the national gov’t was originally seen as good because it eliminated tyrannyLater, these same weaknesses kept the gov’t from solving serious national problemsConfederation Government in New York City
15 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Handout
16 The inability of the government to collect taxes led to problems Confederation Government in New York City
17 America could not pay off debts from the Revolutionary War U.S. Trade with Britain,America could not pay off debts from the Revolutionary WarDebt
18 Congress had no power to lay or collect taxes Government is always short of moneyCongress had no power to enforce its laws (no chief executive or executive branch)The government depended on the states to enforce law. There was no effective way to coordinate the work of the governmentCongress was made up of one house (unicameral).One vote per state = unequal representationThere was no national judicial system.There was no easy way to settle disputes between states.
19 Congress had no power to regulate interstate or foreign trade Economic quarrels among the states broke out often over interstate tariffs. There was difficulty in arranging for trade with other countries.The government did not have the power to maintain an armyThere was no national defense. States had local militias.Government was dominated by statesThere was no easy way to settle disputes between states.Approval of nine states was needed to enact laws.It was difficult to enact laws.Amendments to the Articles required the consent of all thirteen states.There was no practical way to change the Articles.
20 Shays’ Rebellion proved to be the convincing event that led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787 Property foreclosures led an uprising among Massachusetts farmers called Shays’ Rebellion in 1787 but the gov’t could not pay for an army to stop itPoor farmers in western MA were angered over high taxes & prospect of debtors jailIn 1786, nearly 2,000 debtor farmers in western Massachusetts were threatened with foreclosure of their mortgaged property. The state legislature had voted to pay off the state's Revolutionary War debt in three years; between 1783 and 1786, taxes on land rose more than 60 percent. Desperate farmers demanded a cut in property taxes and adoption of state laws to postpone farm foreclosures. The lower house of the state legislature passed relief measures in 1786, but creditors persuaded the upper house to reject the package.When lower courts started to seize the property of farmers such as Daniel Shays, a Revolutionary War veteran, western Massachusetts farmers temporarily closed the courts and threatened a federal arsenal. Although the rebels were defeated by the state militia, they were victorious at the polls. A new legislature elected early in 1787 enacted debt relief.By the spring of 1787, many national leaders believed that the new republic's survival was at risk. The threat of national bankruptcy, commercial conflicts among the states, Britain's refusal to evacuate military posts, Spanish intrigues on the western frontier, and armed rebellion in western Massachusetts underscored the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. The only solution, many prominent figures were convinced, was to create an effective central government led by a strong chief executive.Daniel Shays led an uprising & closed debt courts & threatened a federal arsenal
21 America’s First National Government: The Articles of Confederation After Shays’ Rebellion, people like Hamilton & Madison began calling for a stronger national gov’tIn 1787, delegates met in Philadelphia to discuss ways to improve the ArticlesInstead of revising the Articles of Confederation, the delegates replaced it with the Constitution34a - explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays' Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government