Today’s Agenda Warm-up: Study for Section 2 Quiz Notes on Section 3 Homework
The Articles of Confederation Established “a firm league of friendship” Each state kept “its sovereignty, freedom, and independence.” Came together for “their common defense, the security of their Liberties, and their mutual and general welfare.
The Articles of Confederation November 15, 1777, the delegates approved this plan of government. The ratification, or formal approval, of each of the 13 states was needed. Maryland finally ratified on March 1, 1781 – the Second Continental Congress declared the Articles effective on that date. http://www.izaak.unh.edu/dlp/Stark/StarkGallery/images/STK1777_U58.jpg
Government Structure Unicameral Congress with delegates chosen yearly Each state one vote No executive or judicial branch Congress chose a member to be its President yearly – presiding officer no the President of the United States
Powers of Congress Make war and peace Send and receive ambassadors Make treaties Borrow money Set up a money system Establish post offices http://www.pocanticohills.org/5ggovernment/img003.gif
Powers of Congress Build a navy Raise an army by asking states for troops Fix uniform standards of weights and measures Settle disputes between states http://www.stratcom.mil/seals/Navy.jpg
State Obligations Provide funds and troops requested by the Congress Treat citizens of other states fairly and equally Give full faith and credit to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state http://www.busternus.com/rvn/1966%201016%20new%20troop%20arriving.jpg
State Obligations Surrender fugitives to one another Submit disputes to Congress for settlement Allow open trade and travel among states http://www.moviequotequiz.com/reviews/FugitiveBig.gif
State Obligations States retained any powers not explicitly given to Congress. States were responsible for promoting life and property and “the safety and happiness of the people.”
Weaknesses No power to tax (raise money by borrowing and asking states for funds) No power to regulate foreign or interstate trade No power to make states obey the Articles of Confederation or the laws it made – no executive branch to enforce Required the consent of 9 of 13 states to exercise any power http://library.thinkquest.org/J003358F/money_tree5.jpg
Weaknesses All 13 states legislatures had to consent to any changes in the Articles – not one amendment was ever added One vote per state regardless of size No national court system
The 1780’s The Revolutionary war ended on October 19th, 1781. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783 Peace brought the weaknesses of the Articles to the surface. States bickered, taxing each other and banning trade. http://www.constitutioncenter.org/timeline/flash/assets/asset_upload_file867_11926.jpg
The 1780’s Many states acted without Congress’ approval. Violence broke out in many places. Shay’s Rebellion - 1786 Daniel Shays led uprising that forced the Massachusetts Supreme Court to close (upset about economic conditions)
Need for Stronger Government Mount Vernon – successful negotiations between Maryland and Virginia that lead to a “meeting of all states to consider a plan for regulating commerce.”
Need for Stronger Government Joint meeting – September 11, 1786 – only 5 states attended. Call for another meeting. Congress calls on all states to send a delegate to Philadelphia “for the sole and expressed purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation.
Need for Stronger Government May 25, 1778 – Meeting in Philadelphia becomes the Constitutional Convention. Began the establishment of a new government for the United States.