Presentation on theme: "Creating a New Nation. What Now? Each colony was seen as its own separate nation. Founders believed that a unifying national government was needed Help."— Presentation transcript:
What Now? Each colony was seen as its own separate nation. Founders believed that a unifying national government was needed Help conduct the war Control trade and manage conflicts Be uniform in how they dealt with other nations Articles of Confederation First constitution and created first national government Adopted in 1777, final approval 1781
Problems Writing the Articles People’s fear of a strong national government Believed British gov’t took away people’s rights Thought this would happen with any government that was powerful and far away from the people Fear that some states would have more powers than others Wanted to make sure states interests were taken into consideration Most important issue: how states would vote in Congress Decisions would be made by majority vote
Organizing a National Government Created a weak gov’t to appease fears of a national government that was too strong The government was simply a legislature (Congress) No judicial or executive branches Most of the powers of gov’t were left to the states Each state had one vote in Congress. On important matters (like declaring war) 9 out of 13 states would have to agree.
Achievements of the National Gov’t Under the Articles Waged the War against Great Britain Negotiated the Treaty of Paris Made each state recognize the laws of the other states. Marriage in one state would be valid in another Citizens could travel freely from one state to another Criminals who crossed state borders to be sent back to the state in which a crime was committed Northwest Ordinance
Gave people in the north west lands the right to organize their own governments. They could then request to be admitted as a new state. They would have the same rights as the 13 states. Provided for public education and forbade slavery Guaranteed freedom of religion, right to trial by jury and due process of law
Problems with the Articles Congress had no money and lacked the power to raise money. Could not tax Could ask states to pay certain amount of money to support national government. Congress had no power over the state governments or their citizens. States often ignored laws passed by Congress Had no way to force people to obey their laws
Problems with the Articles Congress could not make states live up to trade agreements with other nations. Some citizens imported goods from other countries and would not pay for them. People in other nations did not want to trade with US Americans lost money due to lack of trade Congress had no power to regulate trade between states. States would tax good from one state to another Trade became impossible, business slowed and people lost jobs.
Problems with the Articles Citizens thought their property rights were threatened People believed states were not protecting their property rights Factions were formed to promote their own interests Factions became the majority in some legislatures People began to think that a strong national government was needed to protect property rights.
A Failing Economy What were some of the financial problems America was dealing with after the war? Owed money to other country and citizens that was borrowed to fight the war. National government did not have the power to tax. The states were not helpful in giving the national government money. Currency that was printed during the war was worthless Each state printed its own currency.
Economic Depression Business slowed down, unemployment rate increased. Britain made trade difficult for America by passing laws that made it difficult for them to enter its ports. Britain also cut off America’s access to the West Indies further preventing trade.
Farming Difficulties During the war the demand for goods from farms increased. Farmers borrowed money from banks to buy more land and equipment. After the war the demand decreased Farmers grew more goods than they could sell. Could not repay the banks the money they owed them. Banks began to take farmer’s land if they could not pay back their debts. Some farmers were imprisoned for not being able to pay back their debt.
Shays’ Rebellion Specifically in Massachusetts farmers were getting angry. Their farms were being shut down. Claimed that the new state taxes put them in debt. They felt that the state was not protecting their interests. Farmers asked state legislature to provide debt relief. The state refused The farmers rebelled.
Shay’s Rebellion Led by Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shay Shay and a group of other angry farmers began to shut down the courts that were taking their land. Their actions began to spread into other counties Shay led between 1,000 and 2,000 men to raid a federal arsenal to get weapons. Mass sent in their state militia and easily defeated Shay’s group.
Call for a Convention The leaders of the nation felt that an armed group of farmers could become more widespread. People were beginning to think that they country would fail if it could not maintain law and order. Leaders felt that the Articles of Confederation needed to be revised. A convention was called to take place in May, 1787 to revise the articles and delegates from each state were invited to attend.