Presentation on theme: "SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a."— Presentation transcript:
1 SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays’ Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.
2 Volunteers – write your questions below Bell RingerPull out your self-generated list of questions from “John Adams: Part I”I will need 3 volunteers to write their questions on the board ASAPOnce the student-generated questions are on the board you will have 5 minutes to come up with answersBe prepared to answer when called upon!Volunteers – write your questions below1.2.3.
3 Articles of Confederation Prior to the war ending, the Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation in 1777 as the colonies’ first form of centralized governmentThe Articles were a plan for a loose union, or confederation, which would be under the authority of the Continental CongressThe Articles were designed to be weak because the colonies did not want a powerful central government (Why?)
4 Why the Articles failed The Articles proved to be too weakThe central government was too limited in what it could do
5 Why would farmers be upset about paying taxes to the government? Shays’ RebellionTo pay off it’s war debts, Massachusetts raised taxes, which heavily affected farmersWhen farmers couldn’t pay the high taxes, their farms were takenDaniel Shays, a Massachusetts farmer and former captain in the Continental Army, led a short lived rebellion against the state in protest against the taxesWhy would farmers be upset about paying taxes to the government?
6 Shays’ Rebellion and changes to the Articles Though unsuccessful, Shays’ Rebellion caused concern for those in power that states might take property away from the wealthyShays’ Rebellion, and the weaknesses of the Articles, convinced the Confederation Congress that a convention of the states needed to be called in order to revise the ArticlesIn May 1787, delegates met in Philadelphia at the Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles
7 Primary Source – Read & Respond Each group has two Primary Source readings on Shays’ Rebellion + a Venn DiagramEach member of each group shouldRead AT LEAST one readingContribute to the Venn DiagramThe group’s taskWrite all four (4) reading questions on the back of the Venn Diagram along with your answersComplete the Venn DiagramThank you
8 c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers, limited government, and the issue of slavery.
9 Bell Ringer Name 2 people in favor of Shays’ Rebellion. What were some of the steps taken by General Sheppard to minimize casualties of Shays’ militia?This person was one of 17 children. He left home at the age of 16 with $1 in his pocket. He became a Revolutionary and dignitary. He was the U.S. Ambassador to France. Who was he?What role did Abigail Adams play in her husband’s professional and political career?
10 Constitutional Convention The delegates in Philadelphia decide not to revise the Articles, but rather to write an entirely new documentThe delegates kept the meetings a secret as not to have outside pressure and opinions put upon them
11 Creating the United States Constitution The Great Compromise: settled how states would be represented in the new government, setting up the House of Representatives, which appeased the larger states, and the Senate, which appealed to the smaller statesHow are states represented in the Senate?Why would this appeal to the smaller states?The Great Compromise was a merger of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan
12 Separation of Powers: Created the 3 branches of government to prevent the concentration of power and provide for checks and balancesLegislative: made up of the 2 houses of Congress, would make the lawsExecutive: headed by the president, would implement and enforce the laws passed by CongressJudicial: a system of federal courts, would interpret the laws
13 Limited GovernmentThe framers of the Constitution feared misuse/abuse of powerThe framers listed what powers the federal government does and does not have in Article I of the ConstitutionLimited government also appears in the Bill of Rights
14 The Issue of SlaverySouthern states wanted to count slaves as part of their population in determining representation in the House (the larger a state’s population, the more representation they would have in the House)Northerners opposed this because slaves could not vote or pay taxes
15 Three-Fifths Compromise A solution to the slavery representation issue was reached with the Three-Fifths CompromiseEvery five enslaved people would be counted as three free persons for taxes and representation in the House
16 The Issue of SlaverySoutherners also wanted the Constitution to forbid government interference in the slave trade and limit Congress’ power to regulate tradeAs a compromise, the delegates decided:The new Congress could not tax exportsCould not ban the slave trade until 1808
17 Constitutional Convention In September 1787 the Confederation Congress approved the new ConstitutionThe task now was to convince at least nine of the thirteen state governments to ratify the document in order for it to take effect
18 Flow Chart Your Task: Flow Chart Read Chapter 5, Sections 1, 2, & 3 (pp. 158 – 175)Use your notes as well as the text reading to complete the Flow Chart ProvidedFlow ChartYou have a Flow Chart w/ seven ‘blanks’The last place has been filled-in for youBegin at the beginning of the Road to Ratification and end at the prescribed eventAll events on the Road to the Ratification of the Constitution must be in orderAll events on this Road must ‘flow’ into each otherThey must have a Cause/Effect relationshipYou may talk with your neighbor – you may not copy or chat aimlesslyThis will result in a grade of ZERO