Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 3-5"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 3-5
2 Declaration of Independence What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence?The Declaration severed ties with Great Britain and created a unique nationNo political system had ever been formed on the principles of equality, human rights, and representative government that derived its authority from the will of the people.Checkpoint Answer: To proclaim to the world that the colonies were severing their ties with Great Britain and creating an independent nation based on the principles of limited, representative government.
3 Declaration of Independence Functions We needed to prove our case to other nations why we had the right to break away from Britain. We did this by…Inform European nations why we are fightingList of charges against King of EnglandProvide common statement of beliefs and ideals held by colonists
4 Basic Natural RightsAll People have the rights of Life, Liberty & the Pursuit of HappinessGovernment gets is power from the peopleGovernment cannot take away these rights.If a government does violate those rights, the people can form a new one.
5 List of Wrongs by Britain 27 complaints listed to prove that…King George had chosen to rule as a tyrant rather than for the people.Colonists had no representation in the British governmentColonists forced to house soldiersColonists taxed without having a say
6 All Men Are Created Equal? Did the words, “All Men are Created Equal” apply to all those who lived in the colonies?NO!Thanks for all the rights Pale FaceWhy aren’t we included?
7 Articles of Confederation The Second Continental Congress had to create an official national government.So they created the Articles of Confederation in 1777, but they were not ratified until 1781 because they needed all 13 states to ratify.The Articles created a single unit of government, the Congress.Congress was unicameral (one house) in structure, with each states electing its delegates each year.Each state delegation had one vote in Congress.
8 Articles of Confederation The national government had NO executive or judicial branch.Special congressional committees exercised executive and judicial functions.Each year Congress would elect a president of the Congress (but not the nation).
9 CongressWhat powers did Congress hold under the Articles of Confederation?Make war and peaceMake treaties and handle ambassadorsBorrow money and set up a money systemBuild a navy and raise an armySet standards of weights and measuresSettle disputes between the statesCheckpoint Answer: The power to make war and peace, make treaties, send and receive ambassadors, borrow money, set up a money system, standardize weights and measures, build a navy, raise an army, and settle disputes between the states.
10 States Under the Articles What were the States supposed to do:Obey the Articles and acts of CongressProvide funds and troops requested by CongressTreat citizens of other states fairlyRespect the laws and court rulings of other statesAllow open travel and trade among statesSubmit interstate disputes to CongressTurn over fugitives from other statesThe states kept all powers not given to Congress.
11 Weaknesses of the Articles Only a “firm league of friendship” among StatesOnly one vote for each State, regardless of sizeCongress powerless to levy taxes or dutiesCongress powerless to regulate commerceNo executive power to enforce acts of CongressNo national court systemAmendments to the Articles required the consent of ALL StatesA 9/13 majority required to pass laws.
12 Problems with the Articles After the Revolutionary War, states stopped cooperating with each other and the national government.They refused to supply troops or money.Some made their own treaties with other nations.Most raised their own military forces.They taxed goods from other states and banned trade with some states.They printed their own money.
13 Problem with the Articles, cont. Economies of many states struggled as a result of all the bickering and poor planning.Much of the newly printed money was worth very little. Prices soared and loans became hard to get.Many people fell into debt.The economic crisis led to Shays’ Rebellion in Massachusetts.Indebted farmers and other small property owners lost land and possessions when they could not pay their debts or their state taxes.
14 Constitutional Convention We need a stronger national government!!!The Philadelphia meeting, held in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation,Turned into the Constitutional Convention.Instead of revising the Articles, it would replace them with something new – The ConstitutionImage Question Answer: The first nation’s first national government, the Second Continental Congress, had come together in Independence Hall. The Declaration of Independence was drafted there as well. The delegates at the Convention might have seen this history as a good omen for great changes to come.