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Enlightenment Influenced by Scientific Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Influenced by Scientific Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment Influenced by Scientific Revolution
The Enlightenment was "Mankind's final coming of age, the emancipation of the human consciousness from an immature state of ignorance and error." Influenced by Scientific Revolution Before superstition explained everything Science to understand Natural World Gravity, Chemistry, Medicine Characteristics 1. Cause and effect for everything 2. Rationalism Truth through reason "Age of Reason" 3. Natural laws Deism

2 If Science can help explain world( physical laws)
Why not use them to discover Natural Laws laws that govern human nature Every social, political, and economic problem could be solved through the use of Science and reason. Who has a say in social, political, and economic?

3 First Enlightened thinkers
Thomas Hobbes wrote book called Leviathan People lived in anarchy Humans are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish. To escape this “brutish” life people entered into a social contract. Only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. Believed only an ABSOLUTE MONARCHY could keep a society completely orderly. In turn people give up control to protect life


5 John Locke Humans are naturally reasonable, moral and good Humans have natural rights: life liberty and property People form governments to protect natural rights LIFE LIBERTY and ESTATES Best government was one with limited power  If a government violates people’s natural rights, people have the right to overthrow government!!! 


7 Ideas explode in France (Absolute Monarchy)
Philosophes - Value reason, nature, happiness, progress, liberty Critics of the world Wrote ideas and thoughts down Denis Diderot “From fanaticism to barbarism is only one step.” Encyclopedia Reference on enlighten ideas from slavery, torture, war ect. Spread Ideas across the Europe Salons place to be critic of world powers Determined in mid-1700s to try to compile great expansion of human knowledge into a single work

8 Baron de Montesquieu –Power should be a check on power
Anti Divine Right – liked Britain's government Perfect government through natural laws 3 branches of Government 1. Legislative 2. Executive 3. Judicial Branches based on Checks and Balances STAR02621

9 “It is dangerous to be right
Voltaire “It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.” Used Satire Prison time fought against intolerance and injustice mostly religious and government "Think for yourselves and let others enjoy the privilege to do so too." ”Judge a person by their questions not their answers”

10 Environment makes them bad (professions and
Jean Jacques Rousseau History repeats itself in societies Social Contract people born good Environment makes them bad (professions and Private property) “Man is born free and everywhere He is in Chains” “General Will” –traces of all citizens will (Direct Democracy) To maintain good = people must control and choose government POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY

11 Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
Laws = social order Not revenge Speedy trial, justice not torture Degree of punishment based on seriousness of crime “Happy is the nation without a history”

12 Women and the Enlightenment
Philosophes against much of their day but agreed on the role of women Women’s job to stay home and take care of house and family!!! Some fought for more improved status

13 Mary Astell Lack of education for women Lack of equality in marriage “If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?”

14 Mary Wollstonecraft Women need education to become virtuous and useful Women should enter into the fields of medicine and politics “Make women rational creatures, and free citizens, and they will quickly become good wives; - that is, if men do not neglect the duties of husbands and fathers.”

15 Philosophes try to make world better Belief in Progress
Secular world view (some wanted tolerance?) Importance of individual Hate absolutism and Religion as practice in the day All three have impact on their time and today!!!! Science lead to solving social problems Questioned beliefs want to know why Look to themselves for all the answers "Dare to know! Have courage to use your own reason!” Immaneul Kant

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