Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment. 2 Questions: 1) Is man good or is man evil? Explain, give examples Do not say both 2) Attempt to explain this quote “Man is born."— Presentation transcript:
2 Questions: 1) Is man good or is man evil? Explain, give examples Do not say both 2) Attempt to explain this quote “Man is born free but everywhere else he is in chains”
Enlightenment just after Scientific Revolution People begin to reevaluate aspects of society Economics Religion Education Government
Enlightenment Definition Enlightenment (mid 1700s) - an intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. Also known as Age of Reason
Two Views on Government Thomas Hobbes- Leviathan 1651 John Locke- Two Treatises on Government Locke Hobbes
Believed all humans were naturally selfish and wicked Had witnessed this during English Civil War Without government, man would be in consistent war with one another leading to solitary, poor, short lives
Hobbes In order to escape this, people must enter into a SOCIAL CONTRACT with a ruler in exchange for law and order. This would allow people not to act on own self interest and give ruler total power. In your own words, what does this mean?
John Locke- Natural Rights Believed people could learn from experience and were reasonable Believed people were naturally good and could govern themselves Against an absolute monarchy Believed in NATURAL RIGHTS Life, Liberty, and Property Where have you seen this before?
Locke Believed a government’s purpose is to protect these rights and if a government does not, the people have the right to overthrow it Rule by popular consent Basically if a government does not do what you want it to do, you have the right to get rid of it.
Other Enlightenment Philosophers Voltaire: consistently fought for tolerance and freedoms through essays, books, and philosophy “I may not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Other Philosophers Montesquieu – Separation of Powers
Montesquieu 3 branches of government Separation of powers Checks and balances
Montesquieu Continued.. French writer whom believed England had best government because power was spread among King and Parliament Proposed that the best way to keep a government from becoming too powerful was to make sure each side never had enough Need each other - Checks and Balances
Other Philosophers Rousseau: he believed the best government was that formed by free people. direct democracy People give up freedoms for common good “Man is born free, everywhere he is in chains”
A change for Women Prior belief: Education for women was to help them be helpful wives and mothers Men dominated marriage Mary Wollstonecraft: Used reason to make point that women should be equal Education will help them become equal Criticized equality of marriage If all men are born free, then are all women born slaves?
So what is so important about the Enlightenment?
Created a greater reliance on logic and reason to solve problems as opposed to traditional views People began to not only question government, but religion more freely Rise of individualism- people began to use own reason to determine right and wrong. Also our role in society Governmental ideas influenced new nations and current nations to reconsider government that ruled them
Enlightened Despots Monarchs who tried to use Enlightenment ideas Still wanted absolute power but tried to please the people
Fredrick the Great King of Prussia Religious freedom Reduced censorship Reformed justice system
Catherine the Great Czarina of Russia Land reform Improved education Expanded the empire Many of her ideas never actually happened
Joseph II of Austria Son of Maria Theresa Ended Serfdom Ended censorship Fixed taxes