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Bias: unfairly favoring something/someone over something/one else Culture: everything made, learned, shared by members of a society Discrimination: the.

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Presentation on theme: "Bias: unfairly favoring something/someone over something/one else Culture: everything made, learned, shared by members of a society Discrimination: the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bias: unfairly favoring something/someone over something/one else Culture: everything made, learned, shared by members of a society Discrimination: the treatment of a person based on the group/class/category to which he/she belongs Diversity: r ecognizing and appreciating the variety of characteristics that make individuals unique Ethnicity: classification based on a shared common culture Race: classification based on physical appearance Prejudice: an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought or reason.

2 Intro to Sociology

3 Social Science: the study of various aspects of human social behavior Anthropology: the study of humans, past & present Economics: study of the choices people make in an effort to satisfy their wants and needs Psychology: study of behavior and mental functions History: study of past events Political science: study of the state, government and politics Sociology: the study of human society

4 Section 1 Sociology- study of society (behavior, interaction, relationships).

5 Section 1-Notes Society: collection of people with territory, interaction, and culture Sociologists- mainly interested in social interaction. Sociologists focus on group rather than the individual. Sociologists examine social phenomena- observable facts or events that involve human society.

6 Section I Notes By adopting a sociological perspective- you can look beyond commonly held beliefs to the hidden meanings behind human actions. ◦ Tells you that your behavior is influenced by social factors and that you have learned your behavior from others. ◦ Help you find acceptable balance between your personal desires and your social environment.

7 Section 1 Notes Sociological imagination- The ability to see the connection between the larger world and your personal life ◦ “The capacity to range from the most personal topics to the most intimate features of the human self-and to see the relationships between the two.”

8 Sociological Imagination is a mindset for “doing” sociology. It stresses connecting individual experiences to societal relationships. Sociologists must "translate private troubles into public issues," which is something that is very difficult for ordinary citizens to do.

9 Section 2-Notes Sociology developed in 1800s. Factors that led to development of Sociology ◦ Rapid social and political changes in Europe ◦ Industrial Revolution ◦ Factory replaced home manufacturing ◦ Urban populations ◦ Housing shortages ◦ Crime increased ◦ Pollution ◦ Demand for individual liberty and rights ◦ American and French Revolutions


11 Current Perspectives Theory- explanation of relationships among a particular phenomenon. Sociologists develop theories to guide their work. Theoretical Perspective- (school of thought) provide a foundation for their inquiries. Outlines specific ideas about the nature of life.

12 Three Theoretical Perspectives 1. Functionalist 2. Conflict 3. Interactionist

13 Functionalist Perspective Based on ideas of Comte, Spencer, Durkheim. View society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. Society is held together through consensus. Dysfunction-the negative consequence an element has for the stability of the social system (crime). Disrupt society, not stabilize it. Manifest function- intended and recognized consequence of some element of society. (car provided speedy transportation) Latent function- unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society. (car provided social status or popularity)

14 Conflict Perspective Focuses on the forces in society that promote competition and change Relationships among racial groups Disputes - disagreements Competition over scarce resources (power/wealth) is at the basis of social conflicts Those in power tend to establish rules and procedures to protect their interests. Those with less power tend to try to gain access to those resources they desire

15 Functionalists and conflict theorists usually focus on society in general or on specific groups within society. Sociologists who use an interactionist perspective focus on how individuals interact with each other in society.

16 Interactionist Perspective Interested in how individuals respond to each other Symbol - anything that represents something else, but members in society must agree on the symbol (middle finger) Symbolic interaction- how people use these symbols when interacting

17 Something as simple as…a license plate Functionalism: manifest function: license plates were created to track vehicle registrations latent function: license plates are collectibles Conflict: The state makes car owners and renters have plates to keep track of us--that shows us the power of the state. If we have some higher economic power, we can obtain personalized plates

18 Interactionism: every car is supposed to have one--if we have a generic one created by the state, we are simply illustrating our conformity to the role of auto-owner or renter. If we have a personalized plate style, we are symbolically communicating our support of whatever cause the plate is showing the world. If we have a personalized plate the has unique letter/number combinations that spell something such as "SOCTCHR," we are sending a symbolic message about who we are and that we are rich enough and clever enough to have this special plate.

19 As a sociologist, you see: A rich man driving an expensive vehicle. How would a Functionalist view it? How would a Conflict theorist view it? How would an Interactionist view it?

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