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An Invitation to Sociology

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1 An Invitation to Sociology
Chapter 1 An Invitation to Sociology

2 The Sociological Perspective

3 What is Sociology?

4 What is Sociology? sociological imaginations to look at events
 Sociology studies human social behavior.  It assumes a group, rather than an individual, perspective.  Sociologists look for the patterns in social relationships.  Individuals can benefit by using their sociological imaginations to look at events in their personal lives.

5 The Nature of Sociology
 Perspective is a particular point of view.  We all see what is happening around us through our own perspectives—our own point of view.

6 What is unique about sociology?
 Sociology has its own perspective– the sociological perspective (a view that looks at behavior of groups not individuals)

7 The Importance of Patterns
 In society you will inevitably find patterned relationships.  Social structure (the patterned interaction of people in social relationships)

8 How do group behavior and individual behavior differ?
 Emile Durkheim you should Define something by the sum of its parts  1999 Super Bowl Bronco fans rioted behavior differ?

9 Why do people conform? in similar ways. the group’s ways.
 Members of a group think, feel and behave in similar ways.  Conformity occurs because members value the group’s ways.  Conform when personal preferences are not that of the group

10 Acquiring the Sociological Imagination
 The sociological perspective enables us to develop a sociological imagination.  C. Wright Mills sociological imagination (the ability to see the link between society and self) Imagination

11 What is gained by using our sociological imagination?
 Understand effects of events  Awareness permits to learn and get a fuller understanding of the events  Questions common interpretations of human social behavior. sociological imagination?

12 The Origins of Sociology

13 European Origins -began in the late 18th Century
 French Revolution -began in the late 18th Century - A time of great social upheaval  Industrial Revolution - People were moving from farms to factory life, losing a sense of community.

14 Auguste Comte Founder of Sociology! Sociology- study of social behavior.

15 social stability and order)
What were Auguste Comte’s major  Sociology  Positivism (the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific observation  Social statics (the study of social stability and order)  Social dynamics (the study of social change)  Positive Philosophy ideas?

16 Positive Philosophy - Was a book that Comte wrote that explained sociology and his theories.

17 What were Harriet Martineau’s contributions?
 Poor health  Economic failure  Translation of Comte’s work  Society in America believed that women lacked economic power which kept them dependent on men contributions?

18 Why did Herbert Spencer oppose social reform?
 Self taught  Jack of trades  Society Human body  Social Darwinism thought that evolutionary social change led to progress social reform?

19 Karl Marx producing wealth)
 Bourgeoisie (class owning the means for producing wealth)  Capitalist (person who owns or controls the means for producing wealth)  Proletariat (working class; those who labor for the bourgeoisie)  Class conflict ( the ongoing struggle between the bourgeoisie (owners) and the proletariat (working) class)

20 Emile Durkheim  Mechanical solidarity (social dependency based on a widespread consensus of values and beliefs enforced by conformity and dependence on tradition and family)  Organic solidarity (social interdependency based on a high degree of specialization in roles)

21 Max Weber by putting yourself in the place of others)
 Verstehen (understanding social behavior by putting yourself in the place of others)  Rationalization (the mindset emphasizing knowledge, reason, and planning)

22 Theoretical Perspectives

23 The Role of Theoretical Persepctives
 Perception is the way the brain interprets an image or event. Have you ever shared a different perception of an event from a friend? Persepctives

24 Theoretical Perspective:
- Is a set of assumptions about an area of study, in this case, about the workings of society.

25 Youthful Face O L D F A C E


27 What is a theoretical perspective?
 Theoretical perspective (a set of assumptions accepted as true)  Three overarching perspectives  Functionalism  Conflict theory  Symbolic interactionalism

28 Functionalism  Functionalism (approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society)  How does functionalism explain social change?  Examples  Economy  Concussion

29 aspect of society)  Functionalism and conflict
 Revolution or absorption?  Do all functions have a positive effect?  Latent functions (unintended & unrecognized)  Manifest functions (intended & recognized)  Dysfunctions (negative consequences of an aspect of society)  How does functionalism view values?

30 constraint within a society)
Conflict Perspective  Conflict perspective (approach emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society)  What is the role of conflict and constraint?  Power (the ability to control the behavior of others)  How does the conflict perspective explain social change?  Which perspective is better?

31 Symbolic Interactionism
 Symbolic interactionism (approach that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols)  What is the significance of symbolic interactionism?  Symbol ( anything that stands for something else and has an agreed-upon meaning attached to it)

32 Symbolic Interactionism
 Charles Horton Cooley & George Herbert Mead  Groups exist only because their members influence each other’s behaviors  What are the basic assumptions of symbolic interactionism?  Herbert Blumer (1. we learn the meaning of symbols from observing the behaviors of others; 2. once we learn the meaning we base our interaction on them; 3. we use the meanings to imagine how others will respond)  Erving Goffman dramaturgy (approach that depicts human interaction as theatrical performances)

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