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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Presentation on theme: "Sexually Transmitted Infections"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sexually Transmitted Infections

2 What type of STD could possibly be causing this to happen?

3 What is an STI/STD? STD stands for sexually transmitted disease. Sexually transmitted diseases can also be called sexually transmitted infections (STIs).  STDs are spread through sexual behavior or contact. Some STDs are also transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or body fluids such as blood, vaginal fluids, breast milk, pre-ejaculate, or semen. STDs generally infect the genital area (penis, scrotum, vulva, and vaginal opening), anus, or mouth, although they can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.

4 Prevalence Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States today. More than 20 different STDs have been identified, and 13 million men and women are infected each year in the United States. An estimated 1 in 4 sexually active teens are infected with an STD

5 What kinds of STDs are out there?
Bacterial infections are caused by a germ or bacteria. They include Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. These can usually be cured by taking antibiotics. Viral infections are carried in a person's body and can't be cured by medicine. They include herpes, HPV, Hepatitis B and C, and HIV. The symptoms--sores, warts, or other health problems--can be treated, but the virus may stay with the person for life, and can be passed to partners. Parasitic infections are tiny bugs that live in the pubic hair and genital area. They include scabies and pubic lice ("crabs"). They can be spread during sexual contact and from sharing bath towels, bedding, and clothing. Scabies and lice are generally eliminated with prescription soap.

6 Chlamydia Most common bacterial STD
No symptoms in 80% of women and 50% of men Discharge from the vagina or the penis, burning or pain during urination Transmitted through vaginal, oral, or anal sexual contact Ectopic pregnancy and infertility for women most serious complications  Treatable with antibiotics

7 Genital Herpes One type of herpes typically causes cold sores in the mouth, and another type causes genital sores; however, each type can cause either type of infection.  Recurring outbreaks of blister-like sores on the genitals Can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during birth Reduction in frequency and severity of blister outbreaks with treatment but not complete elimination of infection.

8 Hepatitis A, B, C, & D Hepatitis B most often associated with sexual contact Yellowish skin and eyes, fever, achy, tired, might feel like the flu Severe complications, including cirrhosis and liver cancer No cure available, remission possible with some aggressive medications Immunizations available to prevent hepatitis A and B

9 Gonorrhea Discharge from the vagina or the penis Painful urination
Ectopic pregnancy and infertility for women most serious complications Treatable with antibiotics

10 Syphilis Mild symptoms, often goes undetected initially
Starts with painless genital ulcer that goes away on its own Rash, fever, headache, achy joints Treatable with antibiotics More serious complications associated with later stages of disease if undetected and untreated

11 HIV/AIDS Spread primarily by sexual contact and from sharing IV needles Can be transmitted at the time a person becomes infected with other STDs Fatigue, night sweats, chills or fever lasting several weeks, headaches, cough No current cure and generally fatal, with death usually occurring after 2-3 years; medication available to slow disease progression

12 HIV/AIDS in NJ Through December of 2008 New Jersey had reported 54,557 cases of AIDS and ranked 5th out of the 50 states. Data for Morris County is available from the state as of December 31, As of that date… There were 1342 total cases of HIV/AIDS reported Out of those 1342 cases, 640 deaths had occurred Estimated Rates of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in New Jersey as of December 31, 2009 One in 62 Black non-Hispanics were living with HIV/AIDS. One in 184 Hispanics were living with HIV/AIDS. One in 701 White non-Hispanics were living with HIV/AIDS. Source: New Jersey HIV/AIDS Reporting System as of December 31, 2009 and bridged-Race population estimates September 2008.

13 Pubic Lice Very tiny insects living in pubic hair
Can be picked up from clothing or bedding First notice itching in the pubic area Treatable with creams, anti-lice agents, and combing

14 Scabies Skin infection caused by a tiny mite Highly contagious
Spread primarily by sexual contact or from contact with skin, infested sheets, towels, or furniture Treatment with creams

15 HPV 100 strains of the virus, 40 live in the genital area and are sexually transmitted 75% of sexually active people will contract HPV during their lifetime Spread through skin-to-skin contact and body fluid 70% of cervical cancers are caused by only two strains 90% of genital warts are caused by two different strains Can only be prevented through complete sexual abstinence

16 Diagnosis Some STDs can be diagnosed without any tests at all. Other STDs require a blood test or a sample of any unusual fluid (such as an abnormal discharge from the vagina or the penis) to be analyzed in a lab to help establish a diagnosis. Some tests are completed while a person waits; other tests require a few days before a person may obtain the results.

17 Treatment The treatment of an STD varies depending on the type of STD. Some STDs require a person to take antibiotic medication either by mouth or by injection; other STDs require a person to apply creams or special solutions on the skin. Often, reexamination by a doctor is necessary after the treatment to confirm that the STD is completely gone. Some STDs, such as herpes and HIV (which leads to AIDS), cannot be cured, only controlled.

18 Prevention Avoid sexual contact with others.
If people decide to become sexually active, they can reduce the risk of developing an STD in these ways: Be in a monogamous relationship (both sexual partners are each others' only sexual partner). Delay having sexual relations as long as possible. The younger people are when they become sexually active, the higher the lifetime risk for contracting an STD. The risk also increases with the number of sexual partners. Correctly and consistently use a male latex condom.  Have regular checkups. Learn the symptoms of STDs. Avoid having sex during menstruation. Avoid anal intercourse or use a condom. Avoid douching.

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