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Chapter 5 Lesson 1: The Origins of Hindu India

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1 Chapter 5 Lesson 1: The Origins of Hindu India
Pg 92 in your textbook Reading for tonight: pg 92-95, questions 1-4

2 Hinduism- The Eternal Faith
With over 800 million followers worldwide, Hinduism is one of the oldest and most important religions on the planet today.

3 Hinduism- The Eternal Faith
There is no single founding figure in the history of Hinduism. Most scholars agree that the religion and its beliefs developed slowly over time, beginning with the invasion of India in 1500 BC.

4 Aryan Invasion of India
The Aryans that moved into India at that time brought with them a variety of beliefs.

5 The Vedas It was around 1500 BC that many Hindus believe their scriptures known as the Vedas were revealed. These are records of religious knowledge including 1,000 years worth of hymns, mantras, magic spells, chants and more. They are written in Sanskrit.

6 The Caste System These texts describe the caste system that divides Hindu society into four different groups 1. Brahmins (priests and scholars) 2. Kshatryias (warriors and rulers) 3. Vaishyas (merchants and land owners) 4. Sudras (workers) ________________ 5. Untouchables (impure, outside of caste system)


8 Reincarnation The caste system is important to the belief in reincarnation. Reincarnation: the belief that the soul repeatedly goes through a cycle of being born into a body, dying, and being reborn again in a new body.

9 Reincarnation


11 Karma and Reincarnation
Karma, a force that determines the quality of each life, depending on how well one behaved in a past life. Hinduism says we create karma by our actions on earth. If you live a good life, you create good karma. If you live a bad life, you create bad karma.

12 Karma

13 Bellringer Write a descriptive paragraph in your notebook using the following vocab terms from yesterday’s lesson: Hinduism 5. Reincarnation Aryan Invasion 6. Karma Vedas Caste System

14 Karma and Dharma The concept of Karma is ruled by Dharma, or divine law. The law requires everyone to do their duty. People’s duties are different depending on their Varna (caste) Those high on the social scale (Brahmins) are held to higher expectations than lower classes. The Brahmins, for example, are expected not to eat meat. To do this would mean the killing of another being, thus affecting their karma.

15 Reincarnation and the Caste System
The system of reincarnation provided a religious basis for the class divisions in Indian society. Those who had privileges, deserved them because they obeyed their caste dharma. Also gave hope to those in lower castes, because if they obeyed their caste dharma, they would improve their condition in the next life.

16 Moksha Each time a Hindu soul is reincarnated, it has the opportunity to improve itself further, and get closer to ultimate freedom. This freedom is called Moksha. When Moksha is achieved, the individual soul unites with the Great World Soul, the Brahman. Seen as a form of “dreamless sleep”

17 Moksha One attains Moksha when one has "overcome ignorance", and no longer desires anything at all. The ones who reach this state are released from the cycle of reincarnation. The way to get to Moksha is to not create any bad karma. Hindus developed the practice of yoga to achieve Moksha.

18 Yoga The final goal of yoga (which means “union”) is to form a spiritual union with the Brahman. Because people are different, Hindus developed four types of yoga to meet different needs. The path of knowledge The path of love The path of work The path of meditation


20 GODS IN HINDUISM Because of the variety within Hinduism, it can be difficult to get a handle on its complex system of gods and goddesses. Most Hindus regard the various gods as parts of Brahman, the ultimate reality behind all things. The individual Hindu gods are various parts of the Brahman.

21 Main Gods in Hinduism (The Holy Trinity)
1. Brahma Brahma is the creator god typically depicted with four heads, each of which recites one of the Vedas.

22 Main Gods in Hinduism 2. Vishnu
One of the most popular gods is Vishnu, the preserver of the universe. Maintains balance in the universe He is depicted as a blue-skinned, four-armed male.

23 Main Gods in Hinduism 3. Shiva
Shiva is the destroyer god and is represented as dancing or deep in meditation. Shiva is also a very important and beloved god in Hinduism. He destroys the world so Brahma can recreate it in an endless cycle of reincarnation.



26 Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva seated on lotuses with their consorts

27 Consorts The “Tridevi” or triplet goddesses of Hinduism have equal importance as the holy trinity’ Brahma is creator, so he needs knowledge or goddess Saraswati to create. Vishnu is observer, so he needs the goddess of wealth and prosperity, goddess Lakshmi. Finally, Shiva is destroyer and re-creator, so he needs goddess Shakti for power.

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