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Health Occupations Nutrition. Fundamentals of Nutrition Good food = Good nutrition Most people are unaware of what nutrients are needed & why Unable to.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Occupations Nutrition. Fundamentals of Nutrition Good food = Good nutrition Most people are unaware of what nutrients are needed & why Unable to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Occupations Nutrition

2 Fundamentals of Nutrition Good food = Good nutrition Most people are unaware of what nutrients are needed & why Unable to make good choices to promote optimal health Nutrition –Includes all body processes relating to food –Includes digestion, absorption, metabolism, circulation, & elimination –Use food for energy, maintaining health, & growth

3 Nutritional Status State or condition of one’s nutrition Goal = good nutrition Must choose foods needed, NOT the foods that just taste good

4 Role of Nutrition Determines ht, wt, & strength Develops bones & muscles Increases physical agility Increases disease resistance Improves appetite, posture, complexion Aids mental ability Improves emotional & psychological health

5 Immediate effects of good nutrition Healthy appearance Good attitude Proper sleep & bowel habits High energy level Enthusiasm & freedom from anxiety

6 Diseases caused by poor nutrition HTN –Can be caused by excess fat or salt –Leads to heart, blood vessel, or kidney disease Atherosclerosis –Arteries narrow by accumulation of fatty substances on inner surfaces –Caused by diet containing large amount of saturated fats & cholesterol –Can lead to heart attack or stroke Osteoporosis –Bones become porous & easily break –Common cause is long-term deficiency in Vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium

7 Malnutrition State of poor nutrition May be caused by poor diet or illness Symptoms – fatigue –Depression –Poor posture –Overweight/underweight –Poor complexion –Lifeless hair –irritability

8 Malnutrition Causes deficiency diseases, poor bone & muscle development, decreased mental ability, & death Affects patients in extreme poverty, drug therapy, & psychological diseases- ALL AGE GROUPS Obesity is a form of malnutrition – excess food

9 Essential nutrients Chemical elements found in food Used by body to perform different functions As body uses elements, they are replaced by food eaten

10 Carbohydrates 1 of 6 essential nutrients Major source of readily usable human energy Commonly called starches or sugars Cheaper source of energy than proteins or fats, produced mainly by plants Easily digested, grow well in most climates, keep well without refrigeration Made of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen

11 Carbohydrates Main sources –Bread, grains –Cereal –Noodles –Pasta –Crackers –Potatoes –Corn –Peas –Beans –Fruits, sugars –Syrups

12 Carbohydrates Cellulose –Fibrous indigestible form of plant CHO providing bulk in digestive tract –Causes regular BMs –Best sources Bran Whole grains Fibrous fruits & vegetables

13 Lipids – fats & oils Organic compounds 3 of most common lipids are found in both food & body –Triglycerides – fats, fatty acids –Phospholipids – ex. Lecithin –Sterols – ex. cholesterol Made of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen, but has more oxygen than CHO Most concentrated form of energy More expensive source of energy than CHO

14 Lipids Other functions –Maintains body temp by providing insulation –Cushions organs & bones –Aids in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins –Provides flavor Sources –Butter, margarine –Oils, cream –Cheese, fatty meats –Egg yolks

15 Lipids Classified as saturated or polyunsaturated –Saturated fats – solid at room temp Meats, eggs, whole milk, cream, butter, cheese –Polyunsaturated fats – usually soft & oily Veggie oils, margarine, products made from vegetable oil, fish peanuts Cholesterol –Sterol lipid found in body cells & animal products –Used in production of steroid hormones, vitamin D & bile acids –Component of body cells –Sources – egg yolk, fatty meats, shellfish, butter, cream, cheese, whole milk, organ meats

16 Lipids Also synthesized by liver Transported in bloodstream by 2 carrier molecules called lipoproteins –HDL – high density lipoproteins Good cholesterol Transports cholesterol back to liver Prevents plaque from accumulating in arteries –LDL – low density lipoproteins Bad cholesterol Contributes to plaque build-up Important to limit foods containing fats from animal sources

17 Proteins Basic component of all body cells Function –Builds & repairs tissues –Regulates body functions –Provides energy & heat Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, may contain sulfur, phosphorus, iron, & iodine Made up of 22 building blocks called amino acids

18 Proteins 2 types –Complete proteins 9 essential amino acids Sources – animal foods like meats, fish, milk, cheese, eggs –Incomplete proteins Contain any of the remaining 13 amino acids & some, not all of the 9 essentials Sources – vegetable foods, cereals, soybeans, dry beans, peas, corn, peanuts Choose plant foods carefully –Can provide a mixture of amino acids from incomplete proteins that contain all essential amino acids –Important for vegetarians to select foods wisely

19 Vitamins Organic compounds essential to life Important for metabolism, building tissue, & regulating body processes Allows body to use energy provided by CHO & proteins Well-balanced diet will usually provide required vitamins Excess OR deficiency can cause poor health

20 Vitamins Antioxidants –Organic molecules that help to protect body from harmful substances called free radicals Oxygen used during metabolism causes free radicals to form These damage tissues, cells, & genes (like oxygen causes apples to turn brown or metal to rust) Can lead to the development of chronic diseases like cancer, heart disease, arthritis –Found mostly in fruits & vegies Deactivate free radicals Prevents damage to skin Main antioxidants vitamins – A,C,E

21 Vitamins Classified –Water soluble Dissolve in water Are not normally stored by body Easily destroyed by cooking, air, light Niacin, Vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, Vit C, Folic acid –Fat soluble Dissolve in fat Can be stored in body Not easily destroyed by cooking, air, light Vitamin A, D, E, K

22 Minerals Inorganic elements found in all body tissue Regulate body fluids, assist in various functions, contribute to growth, aid in tissue building Antioxidants – Selenium, zinc, copper, manganese Other minerals – calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur, iron, iodine, fluoride

23 Water Found in all body tissues Functions –Essential for digestion or breakdown of food –Makes up most of blood plasma & cell cytoplasm –Helps body tissues absorb nutrients –Helps move waste material through body Found in almost all foods Average person should drink 6 – 8 glasses of water each day

24 Utilization of nutrients Includes process of digestion, absorption, & metabolism Digestion – process by which body breaks food down into smaller parts, changes the food chemically, & moves the food through the digestive system –Mechanical digestion – food broken up by teeth Moved through digestive tract by peristalsis –Chemical digestion – food is mixed with digestive juices secreted by mouth, stomach, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, & pancreas Juices contain enzymes that break down food chemically

25 Absorption Process by which blood or lymph capillaries pick up digested nutrients –Nutrients carried by circulation to every body cell –Most absorption takes place in small intestine –Large intestine absorbs water, salts, & few vitamins

26 Metabolism Process in which nutrients are used by cells for building tissue, providing energy, & regulating various functions –Nutrients are combined with oxygen, energy & heat are released –Energy is required for voluntary & involuntary processes –BMR – Basal Metabolic Rate- rate at which body uses energy just for maintaining own tissue without doing any work –Body needs energy constantly – can store for future use

27 Measuring food energy Foods vary in amounts of energy they contains When body metabolizes nutrients to produce energy, heat is released Measurement of heat produced during metabolism is the way the energy content of food is measured –Kilocalorie or calorie –Number of calories in a certain food – caloric value –CHO & protein = 4 cal/g –Fat = 9 cal/g –Vitamins, minerals, & water = 0 cal

28 Individual’s calorie requirement Number of calories needed by body during a 24 hour period Varies from person to person depending on activity, age, size, gender, physical condition, & climate Usually amount of physical activity is main factor because energy used must be replaced Lose weight = decrease cal, increase exercise Gain weight = increase cal, decrease exercise Weight gain or loss of 1-2 lbs per week is safe


30 7 guidelines for good eating habits Eat a variety of foods – food groups, adjust portion size & number, vary nutrients Maintain healthy weight Diet low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol Use salt & sodium in moderation If alcohol is consumed, do so in moderation Choose a diet with plenty of veggies, fruits, & grains Use sugar in moderation

31 Therapeutic diets Modifications of normal diet used to improve specific health conditions Normally prescribed by dr. & planned by dietician May change nutrients, calorie count, or texture May be strange or unpleasant to pt – anorexia, weakness, illness, depression Use patience & tact to convince to eat Understand purpose of diet & provide pt with explanations

32 Regular or Standard diet Balanced diet used for ambulatory pts, may be reduced calories Rich desserts, creams, salad dressings, & fried food may be eliminated Otherwise, no restrictions

33 Liquid diets Foods must be liquid at body temp Nutritionally inadequate, can only use for short time periods Clear liquids –Mostly CHO & water –Apple/grape juice, broths, gelatin, fruit ice, ginger ale, tea, coffee Full liquids –Strained soups & cereals, fruit & veggie juices, yogurt, hot cocoa, custard, ice cream, pudding, sherbet, eggnog

34 Soft diet Similar to regular, but foods must require little chewing & must be easily digestible Avoid meat & shellfish with tough connective tissue, rich desserts, coarse cereals, spicy food, fried food, raw fruit/veggies, nuts, coconuts Uses – postop, pts withy infections, digestive disorders or chewing problems

35 Diabetic diet - ADA Used for pts with diabetes – body doesn’t produce enough insulin to metabolize CHO, pts freq take insulin Diet has exchange lists –Group foods according to type, nutrients, calories –Pts are allowed a certain number of items from each exchange Avoid sugary foods – candy, sodas, desserts, cookies, syrup, honey, condensed milk, gum, jam, jelly

36 Calorie Controlled diet Can be either low or high calorie Low calorie –Used for overweight pts –Avoid or limit high calorie foods High calorie –Used for underweight pts, hyperthyroid, cancer –Includes extra protein & CHO –Avoid high bulk food – green salads, watermelon, fibrous fruits & high fat foods

37 Low Cholesterol diet Restricts cholesterol containing foods Used for patients with heart disease

38 Fat restricted diet Used for patients with gall bladder disease, liver disease, obesity, heart disease Restricts fat

39 Sodium restricted diets Can use diabetic exchange lists No added salt, no smoked meats, processed foods, pickles, sauerkraut, olives, processed cheese Used for HTN, CHF, kidney disease, edema

40 Protein diet Includes low protein & high protein Low protein –Kidney disease, allergies High protein –Children, adolescent, pregnant, lactating, preop, postop, burns, fevers, infections

41 Bland diet Consists of easily digested foods that do not irritate digestive tract Avoid – coarse foods, fried foods, highly seasoned foods, pastries, candy, raw fruit & veggies, alcohol, carbonated beverages, smoked/salted meats, nuts, olives, avocados, coconut, whole grain breads & cereals, coffee, tea Used for pts with ulcerative colitis, diverticulitis, diarrhea

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