2 How Nutrients WorkThe Nutrient team fuels your body and helps you grow.Nutrients repair the body and help maintain basic functions.There are 6 key nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
3 Carbohydrates The body’s main source of energy Two kinds of carbohydrates: sugars and starchesSugars are simple carbohydratesStarches are complex carbohydrates- structure is more complexMost complex carbohydrates contain fiber- plant material that doesn’t break down when you digest foodFiber is good for the body in helping eliminate waste.
4 Examples of Carbohydrates BreadRiceCerealOatmealPotatoesApplesPearsHoneySugar
5 Proteins Used to build, maintain, and repair body tissues Made up of chemical compounds called amino acids.Amino acids are the body’s “building blocks” that help perform different and vital functions for the bodyThe body can make most amino acidsThere are nine essential amino acids- supplied by food you eat; the body can NOT make themFood from animal sources are called essential complete proteins- fish, poultry, meat, milk products, eggsThose foods contain all nine essential amino acids
6 ProteinsPlant foods are incomplete proteins- grains, dry beans, peas, nuts, seeds, vegetablesThey lack one or more of the essential amino acidsWhen eaten in combination, incomplete proteins can form complete proteinsExample: beans and riceYou can eat incomplete proteins with a complete proteinsExample: milk and cerealBest way to get amino acids: EAT A VARIETY of foods each day
7 Examples of Proteins Meat Poultry Fish Tofu Beans Nuts Milk Cheese Eggs
8 Question What is role of carbohydrates? Proteins? Why should you eat 3-4 times more carbohydrates than proteins?Create snacks where you can combine complete and incomplete proteins ( 2 per table)
9 Fats Most concentrated form of food energy Provide substances for normal growth and healthy skinHelps make foods taste betterHelps feel full after eatingDissolves some vitamins and carries them in the body where needed
10 Saturated Fats vs. Unsaturated Fats Saturated fats are solid at room temperatureFound in animal foods such as meat, poultry, egg yolks, whole milk, tropical oils- palm and coconutUnsaturated fats are liquid at room temperatureUsually vegetable oilsCholesterol- fat like substance that’s part of every cell in the body. It helps the body make necessary chemicals and aids in digestionBody manufactures all the cholesterol we needPhysicians can measure cholesterol in our bloodstream; the higher it is the greater the risk for heart disease
12 Vitamins Set off chemical reactions in the body Each one regulates different processesTheir roles are specific- can not substitute one for anotherBody requires: 13 vitamins a dayCopy Chart from pg. 396 and 397 in NotesFat soluble vitamins: A,D,E, and K absorbed with the help of fats- getting too many can be harmfulWater soluble vitamins: C and B- complex dissolve in water and are easily passed out of the body as wasteNeed frequent supply of those, but large doses can be harmful
13 Vitamin Examples Vitamin C- orange juice Vitamin A- carrots Vitamin D Vitamin KFolate
14 Minerals Have certain jobs they perform Essential for bones and internal organsBody requires: 16 minerals a dayCalcium- extremely important as a teen– makes up bone and teeth structureDrink and eat dairy products to get calciumCopy chart on pg. 398 into notes
15 Mineral ExamplesCalciumPhosphorousIronSodiumPotassium
16 Water You can live longer without food than water ½ to ¾ of the body weight is waterWater carries nutrients to cellsCarries waste from the bodyHelps regulate body temperaturesDrink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day
17 Deficiencies in Nutrition When we don’t get enough nutrients, we have deficiency- shortageSymptoms could be: tired, difficulty sleeping, frequent colds, weight gain, weight lossMore serious deficiencies could be: affecting body parts- skin, eyes, tongue, or bonesEat a variety of foods to avoid these deficiencies
18 Energy and Calories Food supplies the body with energy Energy is needed for breathing, pumping blood, and activitiesCalories- unit for measuring energy; measure energy we take from food and what the body uses upAge, activity level, and gender depends on the number of calories you needGetting more calories than your body needs can cause weight gain, while fewer can cause weight loss
19 Meeting Your Energy Needs Fats contain 9 calories per gramCarbohydrates and proteins contain 4 calories per gramTry to get 55% to 60% of calories from carbohydrates ( complex mainly)15% from protein30% or less from fats ( mainly unsaturated)
20 Nutrient DensityThe amount of nutrients in a food relative to the number of caloriesPotato chips, cokes, candy have low nutrient densityFruits, veggies, whole grains, lean meats, and low-fat milk have high nutrient densityThey supply proteins, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other things contributing to good health.
21 Eating Habits Skip meals Grab quick snacks Eat fast food Buy food or drinks from vending machinesHow can we make sure to eat good nutritional foods?
22 Nutritional ChoicesChoose diets low in sugar- empty calories; no nutritional valueChoose a diet low in salt-too much salt can lead to high blood pressureBe physically active for at least 1 hour a dayChoose a diet low in fats and cholesterol
23 Game Time Team One: Fat- soluble vitamins Team Two: Water Soluble vitaminsHave to name one to get a point and the other team can get a point if they can tell what it does in the body.Play to 6 points