Presentation on theme: "LESSON 31 SELECTING FOODS THAT CONTAINS NUTRIENTS."— Presentation transcript:
LESSON 31 SELECTING FOODS THAT CONTAINS NUTRIENTS
Nutrition – study of what people eat & how affects health status Nutrient – substance in food that helps with body processes, growth & repairing of cells, & provides energy. Calorie – unit of energy produced by food & used by the body 6 classes of nutrients: proteins, water carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, & minerals.
PROTEINS Needed for growth, build, repair & maintain body tissues, regulate body processes, and supply energy Helps body maintain strength and resist infections Not enough protein = stunts growth, affects mental development & tissue development. Excess stored as fat or burned as energy
Proteins Meat Fish Nuts Eggs Yogurt 4 calories per gram Milk Seeds Grains Beans
Complete protein – protein containing all essential amino acids (20 are needed & body produces 11) –Amino acids – building blocks that make up proteins –Essential amino acids – 9 amino acids your body can’t produce so you get these through food you eat Incomplete protein – doesn’t contain all essential amino acids
CARBOHYDRATES Main source of energy for the body Sugars, starches & fiber Excess is stored as fat 4 calories per gram of food.
Vegetables Beans Potatoes Pasta Breads Rice Bran Popcorn Fruit Sugars Honey Cakes, candies Drinks
Simple carbohydrates: sugars that enter blood rapidly & gives quick energy Complex carbohydrates: starches and fiber –Starch – made & stored in most plants, long lasting energy –Fiber – grains & plant foods that can’t be digested (roughage)
Eating foods with fiber reduces cholesterol and risk of developing heart disease. –Wheat, bran, cereals, fruit, & vegetables
FATS Provides energy & helps the body store & use vitamins. 1 gram of fat is 9 calories Fat-soluble vitamin – vitamin that dissolves in fat & is stored in the body –Vit. A, D, E, K Body needs fats to maintain body heat, store & use vitamins, build brain cells and nerve tissues
Saturated fat – from diary products, solid vegetable fat, meat & poultry. –Solid at room temperature –Cholesterol – fat substance made by body & found in foods Unsaturated fat – from plants & fish. –Liquid at room temperature –Polyunsaturated – sunflower, corn –Monounsaturated – olive & canola oil
Visible fat – fat seen when looking at foods –Meats –Potato chip - grease Invisible fat – fat you can not see when looking at food. –Example – cake that contains shortening
VITAMINS Nutrient that helps the body use carbohydrates, proteins & fats 2 types: Fat-soluble: vitamin dissolves in fat & stored in the body. Vit. A,D,E, & K Water-soluble: dissolves in water & excess can’t be stored in the body. Vit. B complex & Vit. C
A – eyes, skin, hair, teeth & gums healthy. From milk, cheese, egg yolk, green & yellow vegetables, fruits D – formation of bones & teeth. From diary products, fish, tuna, egg yolk K – helps with blood clotting. From leafy green vegetable, liver, cheese, pork C – heart, cells & muscles function. From citrus fruits, green vegetables, potatoes, tomatoes, cantaloupe
E – form and maintain cells. From green vegetables, whole grain cereals and breads, nuts.
MINERALS Nutrients that regulates many chemical reactions in the body. 2 types: –Macro minerals – larger amounts are needed –Trace minerals – small amounts are needed
Calcium – builds bones & teeth Magnesium – to help with chemical reactions during metabolism Potassium – keeps fluid balanced within cells. Copper – red blood cells Iron – red blood cells Zinc – digestion & healing of wounds
WATER Involved with all body processes, makes up basic part of blood, helps with waste removal, regulates body temperature, cushions spinal cord & joints Dehydration – water content of body is low. Lack of water intake, dry & hot temp. fever, vomiting or diarrhea.
Need 6-8 glasses of water a day. Water found in juice, milk, soup, fruits and vegetables Don’t substitute soda for water. They contain caffeine which acts like a diuretic ( increases urine output) Signs of dehydration: dizziness, fatigue, weakness, dry mouth, headache, blurred vision, dry, hot skin