2 Key terms to knowNUTRITION~ study of nutrients and how the body uses themNUTRIENTS~ life sustaining chemical compounds in food; released as food breaks downMALNUTRITION~ faulty or inadequate nutrition
3 CaloriesCalories Measure energy supplied by food and energy used by the body.Energy comes from 3 nutrientsCarbohydratesProteinsFatsNutrient Density: is a way of comparing the amount of energy or calories supplied by a food with the nutrients its provides.
4 6 Main NutrientsCarbohydrates- provides the body’s main source of energyFats-provided a concentrated source of stored energy as well as insulation for the bodyVitamins-help regulate many vital processesProteins-help build, repair and maintain body tissues Minerals-help the body work properly Water- participates in chemical reactions in the body and helps transport materials to and from cells
5 Carbohydrates are the bodies chief source of energy 1 gram of carbohydrate=4 caloriesSimple carbohydratesComplex carbohydratesCarbohydrates rich in fiber may help prevent cancer (adults need grams of fiber daily)Simple carbs include mono and di saccharidesComplex carbs include polysachharides
7 Fiber Plant materials that your body cannot digest. Grains, dry beans, peas, vegetablesHelps maintain a healthy digestive systemCan also help reduce the risk of cancer and heart diseaseHow Much do you need?If you are under 18: Just add 5 to your age (grams) ex: 12+5= 17 grams
8 Fats Fats belong to a larger group of compounds called lipids Lipids includes both fats and oils1 gram of fat=9 caloriesCholesterol is a fatlike substance found in every cell in the body-it is also found in skin tissue and helps produce hormonesYour body makes all of the cholesterol that it needs-you do not need it in your diet!Cholesterol only occurs in products of animal origin
9 Functions and Sources Body stores energy as fat Fat protects internal organsInsulates the body from shock and temperature changesHelp transport fat soluble vitaminsHigh fat foods include-butter-margarine-most salad dressings-oils-vegetable shortenings-egg yolks-meats-avocados
10 Protein found in every body cell 1 gram of protein=4 calories Proteins are made up of small units called Amino AcidsThere are 22 amino acids, 9 of these are called Essential Amino AcidsYou must get the essential amino acids from the foods that you eatThe other amino acids are nonessential-your body produces what it needs
11 Types of proteinsComplete Proteins- contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient amounts. Complete proteins will support growth and normal maintenance of body tissues (animals foods contain complete proteins)Partially Complete Proteins- contains all 9 essential amino acids, but they have a limited amount of 1 or more if these amino acidsIncomplete proteins- missing 1 or more of the essential amino acids
12 Functions and SourcesFunctionsSourcesProvide amino acids which your body needs for growthRegulation of bodily processes, such as fluid balance in cellsMany factors affect a persons need for proteins- age, body size, quality of proteins and physical stateImportant sources-lean red meats, poultry, fish, milk, milk products and eggsOther sources-dried beans, peas and nuts
13 Protein DeficienciesExtreme protein deficiency can result in Kwashiorkor, a condition including-discolored skin-stunted growth-body sores-bulging abdomen-listlessness-mental retardation
14 Vitamins complex organic substances Needed in small amounts Body does not produce enough, so we need to eat themVitamins are either fat soluble or water solubleFat soluble=vitamins A,D,E,KWater soluble=Vitamin C and B complex
15 Minerals Inorganic substances Make up 4% of your body weight Need at least 21 minerals for good healthBody needs minerals to build bones, soft tissues, and other compoundsHelp regulate body processesMacrominerals=calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorineTrace elements(microminerals)=iron, zinc, fluorineBoth are equally important for good health
16 Water Body must have water to function Can only live a few days without it50%-75% of your body weight is waterYour body takes the water it needs from the foods you eat and what you drink54% comes from drinks-water, milk, clear soups, coffee, tea, fruit juice37% comes from food9% comes as a by- product of metabolism
17 Eating a wide variety of nutritious food is the best source of all nutrients.