Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets

2 11:1 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Most people know there is a fundamental relationship between food and good health Many do not know what nutrients are needed Many are not able to choose proper foods for optimum health (continues)

3 Fundamentals of Nutrition (continued)
Nutrition: all body processes relating to food Nutritional status: state or condition of one’s nutrition Role of nutrition in physical, mental, emotional, and psychological affects

4 Effects of Good Nutrition
Healthy appearance Good attitude Proper sleep and bowel habits High energy level Enthusiasm and freedom from anxiety (continues)

5 Effects of Good Nutrition (continued)
Diseases or conditions prevented or delayed through good nutrition Hypertension Atherosclerosis Osteoporosis Malnutrition

6 11:2 Essential Nutrients Chemical elements are found in food
Used by the body to perform many different body functions Nutrients are divided into six groups (continues)

7 Essential Nutrients (continued)
Carbohydrates Lipids (fats and oils) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

8 11:3 Utilization of Nutrients
Digestion Mechanical Chemical Absorption Metabolism

9 11:4 Maintenance of Good Nutrition
Good nutrition is the best way of achieving and maintaining good health Balanced diet/My Pyramid (See Figure in text) If food is not appealing, people will not eat it even if it is healthy; consider variety, taste, color, aroma, texture, and general likes and dislikes

10 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits
Variety of foods (See Table 11-4 in text) Find a balance between food and all physical activity Limit fats, saturated fat, and cholesterol Nutritionally rich foods (continues)

11 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits (continued)
Don’t sugarcoat it Reduce salt Choose foods high in potassium Check food labels and calculate Remember that alcohol can be harmful to your health

12 Food Habits Affect Nutrition
Habits can be based on cultural or religious beliefs Unusual habits are not necessarily bad; must be evaluated Suggesting changes takes tact, patience, and imagination Difficult to change since most are formed in childhood; change takes place over time

13 11:5 Weight Management Weight in relation to height for
Males Females Large-boned individuals Small-boned individuals Body mass index (BMI) helps to determine healthy weight range (continues)

14 Weight Management (continued)
Underweight individuals are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies Causes and treatment Overweight and obesity Uncontrolled obesity puts a person at higher risk for health problems (continues)

15 Weight Management (continued)
Measuring food energy Caloric requirements vary with each individual and the amount of physical energy expended Energy use needs replacement (continues)

16 Weight Management (continued)
Proper weight control leads to a long and healthy life Gradual weight loss over time Change in habits Exercise First consult with your doctor (continues)

17 Weight Management (continued)
Guidelines for weight loss Guidelines for weight gain One to two pounds per week is the safest way to lose or gain weight Dietary guidelines by the USDA are recommended for weight management

18 11:6 Therapeutic Diets Modification of normal diet used to improve specific health condition Normally prescribed by physician and planned by dietitian May change nutrients, caloric content, and/or texture May seem strange and even unpleasant to patient

19 Regular or Standard Diet
Balanced diet Usually used for ambulatory patients May have slight calorie reduction Decreased or omitted: rich desserts, cream sauces, salad dressings, and fried foods

20 Liquid Diets Clear and full liquids Liquid foods at body temperature
Clear: carbohydrates and water Full: clear liquids plus other liquids Uses such as the following: surgery, digestive problems, to replace lost fluids, and in preparation for X-rays of the digestive tract

21 Soft Diet Similar to a regular diet, but foods are easy to digest
Avoid meat, shellfish, coarse cereals, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, raw vegetables, fruits, and nuts Uses: after surgery, patients with infections, digestive disorders, and chewing problems

22 Diabetic Diet Used for patients with diabetes mellitus who often take insulin Exchange lists are used to choose foods on exchange lists Avoid sugar-heavy foods

23 Calorie-Controlled Diets
Low-calorie—used for patients who are overweight; avoid or limit high-calorie foods High-calorie—used for patients who are underweight, have anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism, or cancer

24 Low-Cholesterol Diet Restricts foods containing cholesterol
Used for patients with atherosclerosis and heart disease Limit foods high in saturated fats

25 Fat-Restricted Diets Also called low-fat diet
Used for patients with gallbladder and liver disease, obesity, and certain heart diseases Avoid foods high in fat

26 Sodium-Restricted Diets
Otherwise known as low-sodium or low-salt diets Used for cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease, and fluid retention Avoid or limit addition of salt; avoid salt-rich foods

27 Protein Diets Protein-rich foods such as meats, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs High-protein for children and adolescents for additional growth, pregnant or lactating women, surgery, burns, fevers, infections Low-protein for certain kidney or renal diseases and allergic conditions

28 Bland Diet Easily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tract Used for patients with ulcers, colitis, and other digestive diseases

29 Low-Residue Diet Eliminate or limit foods high in bulk and fiber
For patients with digestive or rectal diseases such as colitis or diarrhea

30 Other Therapeutic Diets
Other diets may be ordered that restrict or increase certain nutrients Check prescribed diet and ask questions if foods seem incorrect Include patient’s likes if allowed If patient refuses foods on diet, this will not contribute to good nutrition

Download ppt "Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google