2 To survive the human body needs the nutrients found in food To survive the human body needs the nutrients found in food. These nutrients are classified into six groups: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins , minerals, and water. Each plays a unique part in maintaining the normal growth and functioning of your body. Together, they are essential to your overall health and wellness.
3 CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are the starches and sugars present in food. Examples of carbohydrates are, potatoes, pasta, and bread.Made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, carbohydrates are the body’s preferred source of energy, providing 4 calories per gram.Most nutritionist recommend that 55 to 60 percent of your daily calories come from carbs, mainly complex carbs.
4 Two Types of Carbs Simple Carbohydrates and Complex Carbohydrates Simple Carbs are sugars, such as fructose and lactose (found in fruit and milk, respectively).Complex Carbs or, starches, are found in whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes (dried peas and beans), and tubers ( root veggies such as potatoes). The body must break down complex carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates before it can use them for energy.
5 Role of CarbohydratesYour body converts all carbohydrates into glucose, a simple sugar that is the body’s main source of energy.Glucose that your body does not use right away is stored in the liver and muscles as a starch like substance called glycogen. When more energy is needed your body converts the glycogen back to glucose. However, it is possible to take in more carbohydrates than your body can use right away or can store as glycogen. When this happens, your body converts and stores the excess carbohydrates as body fat.You can avoid consuming excess carbohydrates by learning to make informed food choices and maintaining healthful habits.
6 FiberFiber is an indigestible complex carbohydrate that is found in the tough stringy parts of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.Eating enough fiber throughout your life may promote health by reducing your risk of heart disease.To stay healthy, eat 20 to 30 grams of fiber each day. Fruits and vegetables with edible skins and whole grain products such as bran cereals, oatmeal, and brown rice are excellent sources of fiber.
7 ProteinsProteins are nutrients that help build and maintain body cells and tissues.Proteins are a vital part of every cell in your body. They are made up of long chains of substances called amino acids.Your body can manufacture all but 9 of the 20 amino acids that make up proteins. The 9 that your body cant make are called essential amino acids-you must get them from the foods you eat.
8 Two classification’s of proteins: Complete proteins and Incomplete proteinsComplete proteins contain adequate amounts of all nine essential amino acids. Animal products – such as fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and yogurt are good sources of protein.Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Sources include beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains. Consuming a combination of incomplete proteins, for example, rice and beans or peanut butter and bread is equivalent to consuming a complete protein.
9 The Role of ProteinsThe body builds new cells and tissues form the amino acids from proteins.Your body replaces damaged or worn out cells by making new ones from proteins.The body also uses the proteins to make enzymes, hormones, and anti-bodies.Proteins also supply the body with energy, although they are not the body’s main energy source.
10 FatsSome fat in the diet is necessary for good health. Fats are a type of lipid, a fatty substance that does not dissolve in water. Fats provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrates or proteins.The building blocks of fats are called fatty acids, molecules make mostly of long chains of carbon atoms, with pairs of hydrogen atoms and single oxygen atoms attached.
11 Saturated Fatty AcidsA saturated fatty acid holds all the hydrogen atoms it can. Fats high in saturated fatty acids are usually solid at room temperature. Animal fats and tropical. i.e. palm oil , palm kernel oil, and coconut oil have a high proportion of saturated fatty acids. Fats in beef, pork, egg yolks, and dairy foods are higher in saturated fatty acids.
12 Unsaturated Fatty Acids Most vegetable fats – including olive, canola, soybean, corn, and cottonseed oils – contain a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids.An unsaturated fatty acid has at least one saturated bond – a place where hydrogen can be added to the molecule. Unsaturated fats are usually liquids (oils) at room temperature.Unsaturated fats have been associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.
13 Role of CholesterolCholesterol is a waxy lipidlike substance that circulates in blood. Your body uses the small amount it manufactures to make cell membranes and nerve, tissue to produce many hormones, membranes, vitamin D, and bile, which helps digest fats.Excess blood cholesterol is deposited in arteries, including the arteries of the heart. This increases risk of heart disease.
14 High Cholesterol may be hereditary, and cholesterol levels tend to rise as people age. You can reduce your risk of heart disease by eating a diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol.
15 VitaminsVitamins are compounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of other nutrientsVitamins are classified as either water or fat soluble.Water soluble are dissolved by water and easily pass into the blood stream. While fat soluble vitamins are absorbed, stored and transported in fat.Examples of water soluble and fat soluble vitamins are displayed on pages
16 Mineral and WaterMinerals are substances that the body cannot manufacture but are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and for regulating many vital body processes.Water is vital to every body function!! It is important to dink a minimum of 8 cups of water each day to maintain health.