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Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Nutrition and Diets

2 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Most people know there is a fundamental relationship between food and good health Many do not know what nutrients are needed Many are not able to choose proper foods for optimum health Wellness- a state of good health and optimal body function

3 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Nutrition: all body processes relating to food Nutritional status: state or condition of one’s nutrition Role of nutrition in physical, mental, emotional, and psychological affects

4 Effects of Good Nutrition
Healthy appearance Good attitude Proper sleep and bowel habits High energy level Enthusiasm and freedom from anxiety (continues)

5 Effects of Good Nutrition (continued)
Diseases or conditions prevented or delayed through good nutrition Hypertension- high blood pressure Atherosclerosis- narrowing of arteries by accumulation of fatty substances on the inner surfaces Osteoporosis- bones are porous and break easily Malnutrition –state of poor nutrition

6 Essential Nutrients Chemical elements are found in food
Used by the body to perform many different body functions Nutrients are divided into six groups Carbohydrates- major source of energy; starches or sugars Lipids (fats and oils)- organic compounds Proteins- basic component of all body cells; building and repairing tissue, regulating body functions and providing heat and energy Vitamins- organic compounds essential to life; metabolism, tissue building, and regulation of body processes Minerals- inorganic elements found in body tissues; regulate body fluids, body functions, growth and building tissues Water – found in all body tissues; essential for body processes

7 Utilization of Nutrients
Digestion- process by which body breaks down food into smaller parts, changes food chemically, and moves through digestive system Mechanical Chemical Absorption- process by which blood or lymph capillaries pick up digested nutrients Metabolism-process in which nutrients are used by the cells for building tissues, providing energy, and regulation of body processes

8 Maintenance of Good Nutrition
Good nutrition is the best way of achieving and maintaining good health Balanced diet/My Pyramid If food is not appealing, people will not eat it even if it is healthy; consider variety, taste, color, aroma, texture, and general likes and dislikes

9 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits
Variety of foods Find a balance between food and all physical activity Limit fats, saturated fat, and cholesterol Nutritionally rich foods (continues)

10 Guidelines for Good Eating Habits
Don’t sugarcoat it Reduce salt Choose foods high in potassium Check food labels and calculate Remember that alcohol can be harmful to your health

11 Food Habits Affect Nutrition
Habits can be based on cultural or religious beliefs Unusual habits are not necessarily bad; must be evaluated Suggesting changes takes tact, patience, and imagination Difficult to change since most are formed in childhood; change takes place over time

12 Weight Management Weight in relation to height for
Males Females Large-boned individuals Small-boned individuals Body mass index (BMI) helps to determine healthy weight range Calories- the amount of heat produced during metabolism is the way the energy content of food is measures; heat measured by a unit (continues)

13 Weight Management Underweight individuals are more likely to have nutritional deficiencies Causes and treatment Overweight and obesity Uncontrolled obesity puts a person at higher risk for health problems (continues)

14 Weight Management (continued)
Measuring food energy Caloric requirements vary with each individual and the amount of physical energy expended Energy use needs replacement Weight loss or gain- 1 pound of body fat equals approximately 3500 calories. To lose 1 pd, a decrease of 3500 cal is required. To gain 1 pd you must increase your calorie intake to 3500 *Maintaining weight: a person should consume 15 calories per pound per day (continues)

15 Weight Management Proper weight control leads to a long and healthy life Gradual weight loss over time Change in habits Exercise First consult with your doctor (continues)

16 Weight Management (continued)
Guidelines for weight loss Guidelines for weight gain One to two pounds per week is the safest way to lose or gain weight Dietary guidelines by the USDA are recommended for weight management

17 11:6 Therapeutic Diets Modification of normal diet used to improve specific health condition Normally prescribed by physician and planned by dietitian May change nutrients, caloric content, and/or texture May seem strange and even unpleasant to patient

18 Regular or Standard Diet
Balanced diet Usually used for ambulatory patients May have slight calorie reduction Decreased or omitted: rich desserts, cream sauces, salad dressings, and fried foods

19 Liquid Diets Clear and full liquids Liquid foods at body temperature
Clear: carbohydrates and water Full: clear liquids plus other liquids Uses such as the following: surgery, digestive problems, to replace lost fluids, and in preparation for X-rays of the digestive tract

20 Soft Diet Similar to a regular diet, but foods are easy to digest
Avoid meat, shellfish, coarse cereals, spicy foods, rich desserts, fried foods, raw vegetables, fruits, and nuts Uses: after surgery, patients with infections, digestive disorders, and chewing problems

21 Diabetic Diet Used for patients with diabetes mellitus who often take insulin Exchange lists are used to choose foods on exchange lists Avoid sugar-heavy foods

22 Calorie-Controlled Diets
Low-calorie—used for patients who are overweight; avoid or limit high-calorie foods High-calorie—used for patients who are underweight, have anorexia nervosa, hyperthyroidism, or cancer

23 Low-Cholesterol Diet Restricts foods containing cholesterol
Used for patients with atherosclerosis and heart disease Limit foods high in saturated fats

24 Fat-Restricted Diets Also called low-fat diet
Used for patients with gallbladder and liver disease, obesity, and certain heart diseases Avoid foods high in fat

25 Sodium-Restricted Diets
Otherwise known as low-sodium or low-salt diets Used for cardiovascular diseases, kidney disease, and fluid retention Avoid or limit addition of salt; avoid salt-rich foods

26 Protein Diets Protein-rich foods such as meats, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs High-protein for children and adolescents for additional growth, pregnant or lactating women, surgery, burns, fevers, infections Low-protein for certain kidney or renal diseases and allergic conditions

27 Bland Diet Easily digested foods that do not irritate the digestive tract Used for patients with ulcers, colitis, and other digestive diseases

28 Low-Residue Diet Eliminate or limit foods high in bulk and fiber
For patients with digestive or rectal diseases such as colitis or diarrhea

29 Other Therapeutic Diets
Other diets may be ordered that restrict or increase certain nutrients Check prescribed diet and ask questions if foods seem incorrect Include patient’s likes if allowed If patient refuses foods on diet, this will not contribute to good nutrition

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