Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Fundamentals of Nutrition

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Nutrition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Nutrition includes all the body the processes related to food. Digestion Absorption Metabolism Circulation Elimination Nutritional Status refers to the state or condition of one’s nutrition

2 Fundamentals of Nutrition
Nutrition plays a large role in determining person’s: Height Weight Strength Skeletal and Muscular Development Physical Agility Resistance to disease Appetite, posture, complexion, mental ability Emotional and Psychological health

3 Poor Nutrition As beneficial are the effects of good nutrition so to are the effects of bad poor nutrition: Hypertension – high blood pressure Atherosclerosis – narrowing of arteries Osteoporosis – tiny openings in bones – brittle bones Malnutrition – state of poor nutrition – disease, fatigue, depression, poor posture, over/under weight, poor complexion, lifeless hair, irritability

4 Essential Nutrients Nutrients are composed of chemicals found in food – they are used by the body to perform all the body functions Six Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates – provide heat and energy Lipids – growth & development, heat, energy, insulation, protection Protein – Build and repair of body tissue Minerals – regulate body functions and body repair Water – Carries nutrients and wastes throughout body, regulates body functions

5 Carbohydrates Major source of readily available energy in the body
Commonly called starches or sugars Considered cheaper source of energy because produced by plants Easily Digested Sources – Breads, cereals, noodles/pastas, crackers, potatoes, corn, peas, beans, grain, fruits, sugar and syrups

6 Lipids Commonly called Fats and Oils
Most common found in human body are called triglyceride, phospholipids and cholesterol Most concentrated form of energy in the body Maintain Body Temperature – Insulation Cushion Organs and bones Two Classifications of Fats – Saturated & Polyunsaturated Saturated Fats – solid at room temperature Polyunsaturated Fats - Soft or oily at room termperature

7 Cholesterol Cholesterol is a lipid (fat) found in the body ad animal products Common sources of cholesterol: egg yolks, fatty meats, shell fish, butter, creams, cheese and whole milk Transported in the body by lipoproteins – HDL & LDL HDL – good cholesterol carries it back to liver for re-use, prevents buildup in arteries LDL – bad cholesterol – plaque buildup in arteries (atherosclerosis)

8 Proteins Proteins are the basic components of all body cells
Essential for building and repair of body Regulates body functions by providing heat and energy Made up of 22 Building Blocks – Amino Acids 9 Essential Amino Acids – complete – essential to life, found in fish, meats , milk eggs and cheese 13 Non Essential – incomplete – usually vegetable foods: cereals, soybeans, dry beans, peas, corn and nuts

9 Vitamins & Minerals Vitamins are compounds that are essential to life.
Important for metabolism, tissue building and regulation of body processes They make things happen in body – they do not provide nutrients or energy Two types – Water soluble (B complex, C, etc.) – Fat soluble (A,D,E,K) Minerals – Inorganic (non-living) elements Regulate body fluids, assist in body functions, aid in building of body tissue DO NOT PROVIDE ENERGY OR NUTRIENTS

10 Digestion Digestion is the process by which the body breaks down food into smaller parts, changes the food chemically and moves it through the system. Two Parts – Mechanical & Chemical Mechanical – food is broken down by teeth and moved through body by peristalsis – wave like motion cause by smooth muscles Chemical – Food mixed with digestive juices secreted in the mouth, stomach, small intestine and pancreases Juices contain enzymes that break down food so it can absorbed into blood stream

11 Absorption & Metabolism
Absorption – process where blood or capillaries pick up digested nutrients. Nutrients are than carried throughout body by the blood Most absorption occurs in the small intestine Water, Salts and some vitamins are absorbed in Large Intestine Metabolism – Process by which nutrients are used by the cells for building tissue, provide energy and regulation body functions During this process nutrients are combined with Oxygen and energy and heat are produced

12 Energy Energy is needed for all work in body both voluntary (skeletal muscles) and Involuntary (breathing, digestions, etc.) The rate at which the body uses energy just for maintaining its own tissue without doing any voluntary work is called BASAL MATABOLIC RATE -BMR

13 Measuring Food Food vary in the amount of energy they contain.
For example a candy bar contains more energy than an apple When the body metabolizes nutrients to create energy heat is released. The amount of heat released is the way energy content of food is measured The heat is measured in a unit called Kilocalorie or just calorie The number of calories in food is called its caloric value Carbohydrates and Proteins have 4 calories/gram Fat has 9 calories/gram Vitamins, Minerals, Water = 0 calories

14 Measuring Food An person’s caloric requirement is the number of calories needed by the body in a 24 hour period. Caloric requirements vary from person to person Physical activity, gain/loose weight, age, sex, size of person, climate, physical condition General Guideline – 1 Pound = 3,500 calories General Guideline – Maintain weight – 15 calories/pound/day 120 lb. person: 15 x 120 = 1800 calories/day Decrease 500 calories/day is 3500 calories/week = 1 lb. Recommended safe and efficient to loose 1 – 2 lbs./week

15 Maintaining Good Nutrition
Good Health is everyone’s goal and good nutrition is the best way to achieve good health This is accomplished by eating a balanced diet in the correct amounts. Choosing foods from the five major food groups within recommended servings per day is best way to maintain good nutrition Foods should be from the FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID

16 Food Guide Pyramid

17 Diets Regular Diet – is balanced and is generally for the ambulatory patient Calories may be reduced, rich foods: deserts, creamed sauces, salad dressing fried food should be omitted. Liquid Diets – Include clear and full liquids Clear Liquid Diet – Carbohydrates & water (apple juice, grapefruit juice, fat free broths, plain gelatin, fruit ice, ginger ale, tea & black coffee Full Liquid Diet – all clear liquids plus, strained soups, cereals, fruit and vegetable juices, yogurt, hot cocoa, custard, ice cream, pudding & sherbet Nutritionally inadequate and should be used for a short time Used after surgery, patients with acute infections, vomiting or diarrhea

18 Diets Soft Diet – similar to regular diet except foods require little to no chewing Diabetic Diet – Patients with Diabetes (body does not produce enough hormone insulin to breakdown carbohydrates) – limit/eliminate carbohydrates in diet Sugar heavy foods need to be avoided – candy, soft drinks, deserts, cookies syrup, honey, gum, jams/jellies Caloric Controlled Diets – include both low and high calorie diets Patients to loose or gain weight Low Cholesterol Diets – restrict food high in fats/cholesterol Restrict saturated fats, beef, liver, pork, shellfish, egg yolk, creams, cheese, whole milk, coconut and palm oils Cardiovascular patients, heart disease, atherosclerosis

19 Diets Low Fat Diets – foods to be avoided: cream, whole milk, cheese, fatty meats, rich deserts, chocolate, nuts, fried food. Obese patients and patients with gall bladder disease Sodium Restricted Diets – Low Salt, do not add salt to foods, limit smoked foods, processed foods, pickles and olives Patients with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, kidney disease, fluid retention Protein Diets – Include low and high protein Foods : meat, fish, mild, eggs, cheese Patients with Kidney disease, renal failure, growth concerns

20 Diets Bland Diet – easily digested foods not to upset digestive system
Foods to be avoided: coarse foods, fried food, highly seasoned, pastries, candy, raw fruits & vegetables, alcohol, carbonated drinks, coffee and tea Patients with ulcers, colitis, and other digestive disease Low Residue – Eliminates or limits food that are high in bulk & fiber. Limit raw fruits & vegetables, whole grain breads, cereals, nuts, seeds & beans Patients with digestive disease, rectal disease and diarrhea

Download ppt "Fundamentals of Nutrition"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google