4 Urban Land-Use Theories Concentric Zone TheoryBurgess (1925)Cities grow outwards from the centre in a series of rings.
5 Concentric Zone Theory Timeframe1920’sClass conscious societyHousing segregated according to incomeLack of transport infrastructureAssumptionsOlder buildings in city centreNewer buildings at edge of cityLand values highest in city centreStrong economic and ethnic segregationLow income groups lack transport and live close to city centre.Cities develop on a flat plain with equal access to transport
7 Five Concentric Zones 1) Central Business District 2) Transition and Industrylow incomesoldest housingghettos3) Low Income Residential4) Middle Income Residentialsuburban estates- good quality, gardens5) High Income Residential / CommuterSmall towns and villages
8 Problems with Burgess Model OldDoesn't consider car ownershipLandscape not consideredImpact that industry and transport could have on land use not considered.Zones are never as clear-cut
10 Hoyt’s Sector Model1939Sectors radiating out from the CBD along transport routes.
11 Sector Theory Timeframe Late 1930’s Income and status divided society Housing areas reflect social segregationAssumptionsSettlement develops along transport routesTowns radiate out from the CBDLow-income and industrial areas lie next to each otherWealthy people choose the best sites
12 Criticisms of Hoyt’s Theory OldToo generalIn reality, most zones contain more than one land-useDoesn't consider the impact of urban renewal schemes
13 Burgess ‘v’ HoytHoyt’s theory is based on statistical data, so is less open to the criticism that Burgess received.
15 Harris and Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Theory 1945As an urban area grows, it develops around a number of different business centres or nuclei.
16 Multiple Nuclei Theory Assumptions;Modern cities more complex than suggested by other theoristsEach nucleus acts as a growth pointGrowth occurs outwards from each nucleus, until they all merge into one large urban area
17 Multiple Nuclei Theory Mixture of Burgess and HoytShows some land-uses attract more of the same, for example industrial areasSome land-uses may deter others from locating nearby, eg; housing is usually located away from industrial areas
18 Criticisms of Multiple Nuclei Theory Not an exact fit for all cities and townsToo complex
19 Are these models relevant to today’s cities?? Have some relevanceNow due to urban renewal schemes and changes in society, high income residential areas often exist close to the CBDModern cities are expanding beyond these models- Urban Sprawl
20 Exam QuestionExamine briefly one theoretical model which attempts to explain the development of land use zones in a developed world city. (30 marks)