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What is Migration? September 30, 2014. Migration The movement of people from one place to another – Movement speeds the diffusion of ideas and innovations.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Migration? September 30, 2014. Migration The movement of people from one place to another – Movement speeds the diffusion of ideas and innovations."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Migration? September 30, 2014

2 Migration The movement of people from one place to another – Movement speeds the diffusion of ideas and innovations – It intensifies spatial interaction and transforms regions – It is closely linked to environmental conditions

3 Movement Movement takes many forms – Mobility can be local or global All movement involves leaving home There are three types of movement that vary based on time away from home – Cyclic Movement – Periodic Movement – Migration

4 Cyclic Movement Involves journeys that take us away from home, but then bring us back Daily movement within an area is called an activity space – North American activity spaces are much larger than African or Southwest Asian spaces

5 Commuting Commuters practice cyclic movement – The average North American travels more daily than the average Chinese villager does in a year Commutes can range from a few minutes, to hours Transportation speeds vary as well

6 Seasonal Movement Movement that occurs based on changing weather patterns and environmental conditions of the seasons Example: seasonal travelers that flee the northern winters for the southern states

7 Nomadism Nomadism is a matter of survival, tradition, and culture Nomads are usually found in Southwest Asia and Africa Nomadic herders usually follow the same routes year after year – They need to know where to find food, water, and shelter as the seasons change

8 Periodic Movement Also involves returning home, but people that practice this type of movement are away for longer periods of time Migrant workers are examples of people that practice periodic movement

9 Transhumance A specialized form of periodic movement This is a system of pastoral farming where ranchers move animals according to the seasonal availability of pastures

10 Other forms of Periodic Movement Going away to college – Typically lasts nine months Military Service – Can last years

11 Migration A permanent relocation across significant distances – It can involve the movement of an individual, household, or larger group

12 International Migration Movement across country borders (also called external migration) When a migrant leaves a home country, they are considered an emigrant (Exits) – Subtracts from the total population of a country When the same migrant enters a new country, they are considered an immigrant (In) – Adds to the total population of a country

13 Internal Migration Most migration in North America is internal Internal Migration refers to migration within a country’s borders – Most North American migration is toward the South and West The US population is the most mobile in the world – Most Americans move once every six years

14 Rural to Urban Migration The world’s rural to urban balance is now mostly urban Moving from an urban area to a neighboring smaller town is called suburbanization Moving from an urban area to a rural area is called counterurbanization – This is becoming a trend with the DINKs (Dual Income-No Kids )

15 Forced and Voluntary Migration Why do people migrate?

16 Types of Migration Forced Migration: involves the imposition of authority or power Voluntary Migration: occurs after a migrant weighs options and choices (even desperate ones) – The distinction is not always clear – Example: Irish Potato Famine

17 Power Struggles Migration at an individual level is complex Who makes the decisions in the household? In many regions, men migrate more than women, and men migrate further than women – It is possible that not all members of the household want to migrate – In many Mexican households, men are sent out to find work away from home – In households where there is not a strong male presence, women are sent out to find work

18 Forced Migration The largest forced migration in history was the Atlantic slave trade, which carried tens of millions of Africans to South America, North America, and the Caribbean – Exact numbers are not known, but estimates range from twelve to thirty million Most slaves were transported to South America and the Caribbean – North American slaves were very expensive (roughly $35,000 in today’s money), and were treated more humanely

19 The Atlantic Slave Trade

20 Atlantic Slave Trade The slave trade began in the sixteenth century in the Caribbean – It gradually expanded northwards through North America The slaves performed plantation agriculture – Plantation Agriculture: producing one or a couple of cash crops, mainly for export Slaves were mainly exported from the western coast of Africa, due to physical and cultural geography

21 Other examples of forced migration British convicts exported to Australia from 1788-1830s US government moving Native Americans to reservations in the 1800s Russia moving non-Russians to Central Asia and Siberia from 1920-1953 Germans moving many groups of people to ghettos and concentration camps in the 1930s Countermigration is a form of forced migration – US sending back the Haitians in the 1990s

22 Why do people choose to migrate? Studies of voluntary migration indicates three reasons why people migrate where they do: – Similarity between new location and homeland – Ease of travel back to homeland – Physical distance

23 Push and Pull Factors When a person, family, or group of people makes a voluntary decision to migrate, push and pull factors come into play – Push Factors: the conditions and perceptions that help a migrant decide to leave a place – Pull Factors: the circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places The decision to migrate is a combination of push and pull factors

24 Push Factors Typically more accurate than pull factors Include individual considerations such as: – Work or retirement conditions – Cost of living – Personal safety and security – Environmental catastrophies

25 Pull Factors Pull factors can be based solely on perception The closer one migrates, the more accurate the perception Distance Decay: the intensity of human activity, process, or function declines as distance from the source increases

26 Other types of migration Step Migration: occurs when migration happens in stages – Example: a farmer moving to a village, then a town, then a city, and finally a metropolis Not everyone that sets out for the “big city” makes it there Some get sidetracked by intervening opportunities – An opportunity that presents itself in such a way that is a barrier to migration

27 Types of Push and Pull Factors

28 Economic Conditions Economic opportunities are the number one reason why people migrate Perceived opportunities cause millions to flee to Western Europe and North America – When the economy is in a recession, immigration decreases, both legal and illegal

29 Political Circumstances Migrations are driven by escape and expulsion Vietnamese immigrants that fled Vietnam following the Vietnam War are known as “boat people”

30 Armed Conflict and Civil War Examples include the breakup of Yugoslavia (Balkanization) and the genocide in Rwanda

31 Environmental Conditions The Irish Potato famine was a result of disastrous environmental conditions Emigration occurs in California following every major earthquake

32 Culture and Traditions People who fear their culture and traditions will not survive a major political transition often migrate – Millions of Muslim Indians fled India to Pakistan – Many white citizens of South Africa fled to Great Britain, Australia, and North America after the end of Apartheid

33 Technological Advances People can learn about new places, search for job opportunities, and even purchase real estate via the Internet Kinship links also strengthen the pull factor to a new place – Ethnic neighborhoods When migrants move through kinship links, this is called chain migration – Chain migration can create immigration waves, or swells in immigration from one origin to the same destination

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