Presentation on theme: "Elements of Culture. Society and Culture Culture—set of rules that guide our behavior Made up of our beliefs, history, knowledge, language, moral."— Presentation transcript:
Society and Culture Culture—set of rules that guide our behavior Made up of our beliefs, history, knowledge, language, moral principles, skills, et cetera Society- large number of people who 1. live in the same area 2. see themselves as separate and different from people outside their territory. 3. Participate in a common culture. A Society consists of social interactions among people who think of themselves as similar.
Cultural Traits Cultural Trait – single object, action, or belief. Wedding Ring, handshake, the belief that washing one’s hands helps prevent the spread of germs. Cultural traits usually combine to form culture complexes. Culture Complex – set of interrelated traits. All people eat, and many cultural traits surround this action. Napkin in lap, use a fork instead of your hands, chew with your mouth closed, TIP your waiter
Key Elements of Culture All cultures consist of the same key elements: Values – Broad, abstract, and basic ideas that reflect what is considered good, desirable, important, right, preferred, and proper in a culture. Freedom of Expression Strong Families Competition Loyalty to a leader Religious beliefs Norms – are the guidelines people follow in their relation with one another. (shared standards of behavior).
Key Elements of Culture Norms are divided into two categories according to strictness of enforcement. Folkways – everyday group habits and conventions that people obey without giving them much thought. Greetings Replying to invitations Child-raising customs Mores – norms that have powerful moral significance attached to them (moral standards). Incest, murder, stealing Take care of the homeless Lets be honest!
Key Elements of Culture A society enforces norms with… Laws—written rules of conduct that are enacted and enforced by governments. May formalize folkways (no littering) and relate to mores (against murder). Marriage and Divorce Laws Laws against Murder Sanctions—rewards or punishments (2 Types) Informal-given by individuals or groups Employee of the Week (positive) Being grounded by a parent (negative) Formal-given by organizations or bodies, such as governments, police, schools. Medals for athletic performance (positive) Fines for traffic violations (negative)
Key Elements of Culture Symbols—commonly understood gestures, words, sounds, objects, colors, or designs that have come to stand for something else. Words, maps, diagrams, traffic signs, logos, national anthems, emergency vehicle siren Languages—organization of written or spoken symbols into standardized system with rules for putting symbols together Nonverbal signs—can communicate across languages
A Culture’s definition of reality comes from their knowledge and beliefs… Knowledge—attempts to define what exists, or the reality of the world. Beliefs—theories and ideas about physical and social world Not all beliefs can be proven. Sociologists are interested in how people decide what to count as knowledge and what to count as beliefs. Knowledge or Beliefs??? History, Science, Medicine, Skills needed to perform the work of the society, ways of doing things, ways of making things