Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Sociology Chapter 2 – “Culture”"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Sociology Chapter 2 – “Culture” Roderick Graham
2 Explaining CultureCulture – the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of life Culture can be divided into… Nonmaterial culture – ideas Material culture – physical things Culture is shared…and people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture is considered a society.
3 Elements of Culture - Symbols Symbols – anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
10 Elements of Culture - Language Language – a system of symbols that allows people to communicateThrough language we can transmit culture. Wisdom over time is passed down through language.
11 Elements of Culture: Norms Norms – rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members. There are two types of norms…Mores – norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance. They are taboos. Often breaking norms lead to being outcast or imprisonment (ex. Incest, rape, murder)Folkways – norms of routine or casual interaction (ex. Shaking hands, eating styles, saying excuse me)
12 Elements of Culture: Values and Beliefs Values – culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social livingBeliefs – specific ideas that people hold to be trueValues tend to be general, and beliefs tend to be specific. They are linked…your abstract values affect the specific things you believe about the world.
13 Technology and Culture Norms, symbols, language, values and beliefs are non- material elements of cultureTechnology is the material elements of culture. Technology is the knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
14 Technology and Culture Hunting and GatheringHorticulture and PastoralismAgricultureIndustryPost-Industrial Information Technology
15 Cultural DiversityAlthough societies share general cultures (they share similar symbols, norm, values, and language), there is tremendous variety in the types of specific cultures certain groups practice
16 Cultural Diversity – High Culture and Popular Culture High Culture – Society’s ElitePopular Culture – Widespread in a society
17 Cultural Diversity – Subculture and Counterculture Subculture – set apart from societyCounterculture – strongly oppose wider society
18 Cultural Diversity - Multiculturalism Multiculturalism – perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions Why do people think multiculturalism is a good thing?
19 Cultural Diversity – Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism – the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own cultureCultural Relativism – the practice of judging a culture by its own standard
20 What are some examples of invention, discovery, and diffusion? Cultural ChangeCultural patterns do not always stay the same…here are some ways they change?Invention – creating new cultural elementsDiscovery – recognizing new ways to use something already in existenceDiffusion – the spread of objects or ideasWhat are some examples of invention, discovery, and diffusion?