2 Culture vs. InstinctWhy is culture more important than instinct in determining human behavior?Instincts innate (unlearned) patterns of behaviorReflexes automatic reaction to physical stimulusDrives impulse to reduce discomfort
3 What is culture?It consists of all the shared products of human groupsMaterial Culture physical objects created by human groups, also known as artifactsNonmaterial Culture abstract human creations such as language, ideas, beliefs, rules, skills, family patterns, work practices, and political and economic systems
4 Culture and society ARE NOT the same!! Culture vs. SocietySociety is a group of mutually interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unityCulture and society ARE NOT the same!!
5 Components of Culture Symbols Language Values Norms (folkways, mores, taboos, laws)
6 Breaking it down… Food Ethnic Language Tradition Religion EntertainmentClothingEthnicTraditionStandard of LivingGovernmentEducation
7 Cultural UniversalsCultural Universals – general cultural traits that exist in all culturesHow are these cultural universals expressed?Cultural particulars the ways in which a culture expresses universal traitsWhy do cultural universals exists?
8 Cultural Universals Economy Clothing, Food, Shelter, Communications, Researchers have identified more than 70 traits in all culturesEconomyClothing, Food, Shelter, Communications,Transportation, Business, Jobs, Services, Goods,Technology, Tools, TradeInstitutionsEconomy, Religion, Education, Government, FamilyArtsFolk Tales, Crafts, Music, Theater, Dance, Literature,ArtLanguageWords, Expressions, Pronunciations, Alphabet,SymbolsEnvironmentCommunities, Geography, Geology, Habitat, Wildlife,Climates, ResourcesRecreationGames, Toys, Arts, Media, Holidays, FestivalsBeliefsValues, Traditions, Ethnicity, Customs, Religions,Morals
9 Examining CultureCulture is DYNAMIC not static – it is always changing!Sociologists divide culture into three parts:TraitsComplexesPatterns
10 ***Diagram on my website under CULTURE folder!*** Levels of Culture***Diagram on my website under CULTURE folder!***
12 Beliefs and Physical Objects Nonmaterial culture – Ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people’s behaviorBeliefs – ideas about the nature of realityMaterial Culture – the concrete, tangible objects of a cultureHow are these two related??
13 Ideal Culture vs. Real Culture Ideal Culture Cultural guidelines that group member claim to acceptReal Culture Actual behavior of members of a group
14 Cultural DiversitySocial Categories groupings of persons who share social characteristicsSubculture – a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respectsCounterculture – a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture
15 Ethnocentrism Judging others in terms of one’s own cultural standards Examples?Does ethnocentrism help or hurt society?
16 NormsNorms are the specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situationThey are the agreed-upon expectations and rules by which the members of a culture behaveNorms can be broken down into FOUR categories
17 Folkways Often referred to as "customs” Standards of behavior that are socially approved but not morally significantThey are norms for everyday behavior that people follow for the sake of tradition or convenienceBreaking a folkway does not usually have serious consequences
18 Mores Strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior Mores are norms based on definitions of right and wrongUnlike folkways, mores are morally significantPeople feel strongly about them and violating them typically results in disapproval
19 TaboosA norm that society holds so strongly that violating it results in extreme disgustOften times the violator of the taboo is considered unfit to live in that society
20 LawsA law is a norm that is written down and enforced by an official law enforcement agency