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Presentation on theme: "Culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Culture

2 Culture vs. Instinct Why is culture more important than instinct in determining human behavior? Instincts  innate (unlearned) patterns of behavior Reflexes  automatic reaction to physical stimulus Drives  impulse to reduce discomfort

3 What is culture? It consists of all the shared products of human groups Material Culture  physical objects created by human groups, also known as artifacts Nonmaterial Culture  abstract human creations such as language, ideas, beliefs, rules, skills, family patterns, work practices, and political and economic systems

4 Culture and society ARE NOT the same!!
Culture vs. Society Society is a group of mutually interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity Culture and society ARE NOT the same!!

5 Components of Culture Symbols Language Values
Norms (folkways, mores, taboos, laws)

6 Breaking it down… Food Ethnic Language Tradition Religion
Entertainment Clothing Ethnic Tradition Standard of Living Government Education

7 Cultural Universals Cultural Universals – general cultural traits that exist in all cultures How are these cultural universals expressed? Cultural particulars  the ways in which a culture expresses universal traits Why do cultural universals exists?

8 Cultural Universals Economy Clothing, Food, Shelter, Communications,
Researchers have identified more than 70 traits in all cultures Economy Clothing, Food, Shelter, Communications, Transportation, Business, Jobs, Services, Goods, Technology, Tools, Trade Institutions Economy, Religion, Education, Government, Family Arts Folk Tales, Crafts, Music, Theater, Dance, Literature, Art Language Words, Expressions, Pronunciations, Alphabet, Symbols Environment Communities, Geography, Geology, Habitat, Wildlife, Climates, Resources Recreation Games, Toys, Arts, Media, Holidays, Festivals Beliefs Values, Traditions, Ethnicity, Customs, Religions, Morals

9 Examining Culture Culture is DYNAMIC not static – it is always changing! Sociologists divide culture into three parts: Traits Complexes Patterns

10 ***Diagram on my website under CULTURE folder!***
Levels of Culture ***Diagram on my website under CULTURE folder!***


12 Beliefs and Physical Objects
Nonmaterial culture – Ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people’s behavior Beliefs – ideas about the nature of reality Material Culture – the concrete, tangible objects of a culture How are these two related??

13 Ideal Culture vs. Real Culture
Ideal Culture  Cultural guidelines that group member claim to accept Real Culture  Actual behavior of members of a group

14 Cultural Diversity Social Categories  groupings of persons who share social characteristics Subculture – a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects Counterculture – a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture

15 Ethnocentrism Judging others in terms of one’s own cultural standards
Examples? Does ethnocentrism help or hurt society?

16 Norms Norms are the specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation They are the agreed-upon expectations and rules by which the members of a culture behave Norms can be broken down into FOUR categories

17 Folkways Often referred to as "customs”
Standards of behavior that are socially approved but not morally significant They are norms for everyday behavior that people follow for the sake of tradition or convenience Breaking a folkway does not usually have serious consequences

18 Mores Strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior
Mores are norms based on definitions of right and wrong Unlike folkways, mores are morally significant People feel strongly about them and violating them typically results in disapproval

19 Taboos A norm that society holds so strongly that violating it results in extreme disgust Often times the violator of the taboo is considered unfit to live in that society

20 Laws A law is a norm that is written down and enforced by an official law enforcement agency

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