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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

Chapter 10 Motivation James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Motivation Motivation Instinct
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Instinct complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

3 Motivation Drive-Reduction Theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst)

4 Motivation Homeostasis Incentive
tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level Incentive a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied then higher-level safety needs become active then psychological needs become active Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst

6 Motivation - Hunger Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger

7 Motivation - Hunger Glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood provides the major source of energy for body tissues when its level is low, we feel hunger

8 Motivation - Hunger Set Point Basal Metabolic Rate
the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight Basal Metabolic Rate body’s base rate of energy expenditure

9 Motivation - Hunger The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions

10 Motivation - Hunger

11 Obesity and Weight Control

12 Obesity and Weight Control

13 Obesity and Weight Control

14 Weight Control Effects of a severe diet Days Caloric intake in
calories per day Body weight kilograms Metabolism: Oxygen consumption in liters per hour 3000 2000 1000 Days 165 160 155 150 145 140 26 25 24 23 22 21

15 Weight Control Trading risks

16 Weight Control Most lost weight is regained Weight change in pounds
-20 -15 -10 -5 5 10 1 2 3 4 Weight change in pounds Post treatment Years of follow-up Starting point Normal trend for untreated obese people: Gradually rising weight After participation in behavioral Program: Much of initial weight loss regained Most lost weight is regained

17 Hours of television watched per day
Weight Control < >4 Hours of television watched per day in 1990s study Boys Girls 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 Skinfold fat measure (mm) Obesity was more common among those who watched the most television

18 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa
when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (>15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve usually an adolescent female Bulimia Nervosa disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

19 Sexual Motivation Sexual Response Cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson excitement plateau orgasm resolution

20 Sexual Motivation Refractory Period Sexual Disorder
resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm Sexual Disorder a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

21 Sexual Motivation Estrogen
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males in nonhuman females, levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

22 Sexual Motivation Testosterone most important of the male sex hormones
both males and females have it, but the extra testosterone in males stimulates growth of sex organs in the fetus and development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

23 Forces Affecting Sexual Motivation

24 Sexual Motivation Births to unwed parents

25 Sexual Motivation Sexual Orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

26 Sexual Motivation

27 Sexual Motivation

28 Achievement Motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things, people, or ideas for attaining a high standard

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