Theories & Concepts of Motivation: Important Definitions Motivation: set of factors that activate, direct, & maintain behavior, usually toward some goal Emotion: subjective feeling including arousal, cognitions, & expressions
Arousal Theory People seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance.
Major Theories of Motivation— Psychosocial Theories Incentive: motivation results from the “pull” of external environmental stimuli Cognitive: motivation affected by attributions & expectations
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: interaction of biological, psychological, & social needs; lower motives (physiological & safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, self- esteem) Biopsychosocial Theories
Motivation & Behavior: Hunger & Eating Biological factors: stomach, biochemistry, the brain Note the size difference in these rats. The rat on the left had the ventromedial area of its hypothalamus destroyed.
Motivation & Behavior: Hunger & Eating Psychological factors: visual cues, cultural conditioning Obesity is more common in Pima Indians living in U.S., but not for those in nearby Mexico with traditional diet.
Obesity appears to result from numerous biological & psychosocial factors. Obesity appears to result from numerous biological & psychosocial factors. Anorexia nervosa & bulimia nervosa are both characterized by an overwhelming fear of becoming obese & explained by multiple biological & psychosocial factors. Anorexia nervosa & bulimia nervosa are both characterized by an overwhelming fear of becoming obese & explained by multiple biological & psychosocial factors. Hunger & Eating--Eating Disorders
Motivation & Behavior— Achievement Characteristics of a high need for achievement (nAch): Characteristics of a high need for achievement (nAch): – Prefers moderately difficult tasks – Prefers clear goals with competent feedback – Competitive – Prefers responsibility – Persistent – More accomplished
Theories & Concepts of Emotion Three Components of Emotions 1. Physiological-- arousal comes from brain (particularly the limbic system) & autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Mirror Neurons: brain cells that fire both when performing specific actions and when observing specific actions or emotions of another; this “mirroring” may explain empathy, imitation, language, etc. Theories & Concepts of Emotion
Physiological Component & the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Three Components of Emotion (Cont’d) 2. Cognitive--thoughts, values, & expectations 3. Behavioral--expressions, gestures, & body positions Theories & Concepts of Emotion
Can you identify the social smile vs. the genuine smile? Real smiles involve muscles around both the eyes & cheeks.
James-Lange: subjective experience of emotion follows bodily arousal Cannon-Bard: arousal & emotion occur simultaneously Facial-Feedback: facial movements elicit arousal & specific emotions Schachter’s Two-Factor: arousal & label (or interpretation) produce emotion Theories & Concepts of Emotion-- Four Theories of Emotion
Critical Thinking About Motivation & Emotion: The Polygraph Polygraph: measures changes in sympathetic arousal, which in turn supposedly reflects lying versus truthfulness
Critical Thinking about Motivation & Emotion: The Polygraph The subject’s response on the GSR does rise in response to the second question. But remember that error rates on the polygraph range from 25% to 75%.
Cultural similarities & differences: 7 to10 culturally universal emotions, but each culture has its own display rules governing how, when, & where to express emotions Role of evolution: strong biological, evolutionary basis for emotional expression & decoding Culture, Evolution, & Emotion