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Presentation on theme: "FOOD, SEX, LOVE, AND A PAYCHECK THEORIES OF HUMAN MOTIVATION"— Presentation transcript:

Discussion 9.1 Lesson Plan 9

2 Competency Characterize the four basic motivations.
Compare Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to current theories of motivation. Differentiate between Glasser’s four psychological needs with the four basic motivations and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.

3 Overview Why are you taking this class? A more important question might be: Why are you going to college? Of even greater importance would include: Why do you do any of the things you do (work, school, eat, sleep, recreation, relationships)? Human beings choose to engage in specific behaviors or activities for any number of reasons. Some of them may be conscious decisions, and others may be unconscious. The answer to why we do the things we do lies in the topic we will be discussing in Learning Plan 9.

4 Human Motivation Do we act in a random manner or is there a purpose behind our actions? Motivation is an important concept to understand, and the implications of the word are significant. Motivation is both the cause for and effect of our actions. When somebody asks you what motivated you to do something, they are asking what was the purpose or goal of your behavior. Your purposes or goals might have been the result of external—or extrinsic— phenomena. They may have also been the result of internal— intrinsic—reasoning. Intrinsic motivation means that the activity itself is the reason to be doing it. For example, you may like to go running for the simple fact that you love to run and enjoy how it makes you feel when you are doing it. Extrinsic motivation means that there is an outside motive for doing something. For example, a person who was born a gifted runner and makes a living as a professional athlete might not enjoy running but is extrinsically motivated to do so to make a good living.

5 Theories of Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs Choice Theory Drive Reduction Theory Arousal Theory Cognitive Consistency Theories Incentive Theories

6 Hierarchy of Needs The psychologist Abraham Maslow ( ) developed a model that he felt best explained human motivation. He identified and ranked six categories of “needs,” which are most often seen in forming the shape of a pyramid or triangle. Maslow believed that we act to fulfill these needs, which (listed in order from most basic) as follows: physiological needs: basic survival needs (food, water, shelter) safety needs: the need to be safe and secure social needs: the need to interact with others and belong. love needs: the need to love and be loved. esteem needs: the need to respect and be respected. self-actualization at the pinnacle of his hierarchy: being happy with who you are.


8 Choice Theory Dr. William Glasser- psychiatrist developed choice theory. People are genetically programmed to meet five needs, which are similar in many respects to those outlined by Maslow. Choice Theory proposes that we are always seeking to meet these needs, both consciously and unconsciously. Glasser lists these needs as follows: survival love and belonging power freedom fun Unlike Maslow, Glasser proposes that the love and belonging need is the central objective and is critical to finding happiness. Glasser’s theory suggests that a sense of being disconnected is the reason for so many of our problems in society. While Maslow proposed only a theoretical perspective from which to work from, Glasser developed a comprehensive therapy based upon his theory, termed reality therapy.

9 Drive Reduction Theory
Clark Hull- human behavior in terms of predictable motives Based theory on concept that humans act to fulfill certain innate survival needs- called drives The word drive carries an evolutionary connotation to many and exemplifies Hull’s belief that motivation is more inherent in nature, similar to the concept of instinct (hence Hull is considered a behaviorist). He cites are similar basic needs proposed by other theorists (such as hunger, thirst and safety), Hull asserted that human motivation exists to maintain a balance between these needs. He believed that as the instinctual drives diminished, a relaxed state of existence would result because there would appear to be little left to motivate. When a drive is not being sufficiently met, a person will be compelled to act to satisfy it. Hence, his theory appears to be appropriately named drive reduction theory.

10 Arousal Theory While drive reduction theory proposes that humans seek to reduce drives by meeting needs, arousal theory proposes that we are seeking to be constantly aroused. This theory posits that we are motivated by our desire to maintain a certain optimal level of arousal. Thus, we act in ways to either increase or decrease our level of arousal to maintain the optimal level. The optimal level for each person in a given situation is different. The Yerkes-Dodson Law—a tenant of Arousal Theory— states that there is an optimum level of arousal that will best facilitate performance of a certain task. Not enough arousal will result in a less-than-optimal performance and too much arousal will interfere with the task at hand. Another aspect of the Yerkes-Dodson law is that the more complex the task, the lower the optimal level of arousal will be, because it is more likely to be interfered with by the extra arousal levels.

11 Cognitive Consistency Theories
There are three major theories of cognitive consistency theories: Cognitive dissonance theory Balance theory Congruity theory All include that people are motivated to act in a way that is consistent with their own system of beliefs and perspectives of the world.

12 Incentive Theories Incentive theories vary from the previously described theories. This difference is in the belief of nature of the motivational force. In the previously described theories, the motivational source is internal, whether it is a drive, an instinct or a desire for congruity. An incentive, however, is an external source of motivation. This source can be either conscious, such as a reward that serves to motivate our behavior or an unconscious source, such as the results of sophisticated marketing campaigns that can affect purchasing decisions. An issue with incentive is how it accounts for such behaviors as altruism. What is the external incentive in helping someone else for no personal gain?

13 Glossary Extrinsic: External Intrinsic: Internal
Instinct: Implies the behavior is not learned. Drive: Describes a motivating factor based on meeting needs critical to survival.


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