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BIRTH DEFECTS3.01. FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies are told that their baby.

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Presentation on theme: "BIRTH DEFECTS3.01. FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies are told that their baby."— Presentation transcript:


2 FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies are told that their baby has a birth defect There are over 4,000 known birth defects Birth defects are the leading cause of death in the first year of life.

3 WHAT IS A BIRTH DEFECT?  An abnormality present at birth that affects the body structure or functions and may threaten a baby’s health.  Birth defects can be caused by environmental factors, inherited factors or both.

4 ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BIRTH DEFECTS Inadequate prenatal nutrition for the mother can stunt brain development, lead to mental retardation of the baby, and increase the risk of birth defects, and low birth weight. birth defects(Environmental)- disease or infection exposure during pregnancy

5 ENVIRONMENTAL BIRTH DEFECTS Rubella (German measles)- during the 1 st trimester can cause blindness, deafness, heart disease and retardation Toxoplasmosis, a parasite in cat litter and some raw meat, can cause blindness, hearing loss, learning disabilities and death

6 ENVIRONMENTAL BIRTH DEFECTS Varicella (AKA chicken pox) during 1 st half of pregnancy may cause scarring of baby’s skin, limb defects, physical disabilities and death STDs ( Sexually transmitted ) can be passed to the unborn child and cause serious illness, physical disabilities, or death

7 ENVIRONMENTAL BIRTH DEFECTS Harmful substances consumed during pregnancy * Nicotine (from smoking tobacco or secondhand smoke) * Alcohol can cause FAS or Fetal Alcohol Syndrome * Drugs- over-the counter, prescription, and illegal * Caffeine increased risk of miscarriage,low birth-weight and infant death

8 ENVIRONMENTAL BIRTH DEFECTS Lives in a home built before 1955 (lead paint) or 1986 (metal joints) Chemicals -some types of paint, pesticides, CO2, carbon monoxide, mercury and paint thinners X-rays during pregnancy can cause childhood cancer, miscarriage, mental retardation. Cerebral Palsy – caused by damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth Damage to embryo and fetus from accidents can lead to birth defects

9 HEREDITARY INFLUENCES ON BIRTH DEFECTS Dominant gene traits are stronger than recessive traits Defective recessive genes are inherited from both parents Defective dominant genes are inherited from one parent Errors with the structure or number of chromosomes

10 INHERITED RECESSIVE BIRTH DEFECTS Cystic Fibrosis -causes mucus to build up and clog the lungs and make breathing very difficult. Caucasians Shortened life expectancy Symptoms-Salty-tasting skin, coughing,bronchitis, shortness of breath, poor growth/weight gain in spite of a good appetite, frequent greasy, bulky stools

11 INHERITED RECESSIVE BIRTH DEFECTS Tay-Sachs a metabolic defect which affects the nervous system Jewish ancestry Children appear normal at first and then slowly fail to develop and lose body functions Enzyme deficiency that allows fat to build in the brain and nerves; brain damage, blindness, and loss of brain function. Death usually occurs by age five commerciala

12 INHERITED RECESSIVE BIRTH DEFECTS PKU (Phenylketonuria)  The body is unable to process and use a protein that is in most foods  All newborns are tested by law for PKU using a simple blood test  No cure, but a special low-protein diet can prevent brain damage

13 INHERITED RECESSIVE BIRTH DEFECTS Sickle Cell Anemia -blood disorder deprives the body of oxygen Associated with African-American decent

14 INHERITED DOMINANT GENE BIRTH DEFECTS 1. Hemophilia -passed to sons from mothers only- prevents blood clotting 2. Huntington’s Disease -manifests in adulthood and leads to dementia 3. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - passed by mother to male children 4.Color Blindness -usually affects males

15 HEREDITARY INFLUENCES: CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES Down Syndrome One extra chromosome- 47 chromosomes Characteristics: mental retardation, heart problems, leukemia, poor muscle tone, short stature and distinct facial characteristics

16 HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES(BOTH) Spina bifida (open spine ) Loss of body movement; enlarged head due to fluid buildup (hydrocephalus). Caused by lack of folic acid Cleft lip/palate Gap in the roof of the mouth or Upper lip divided into two parts caused by incomplete closure at 5 to 7 weeks after conception

17 HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES(BOTH) Heart Defects An inherited tendency to develop a heart defect combined with drug use or virus during pregnancy can cause the baby to have a heart defect

18 HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES(BOTH) Multiple births Hyper-ovulation gene inherited from mother leads to fraternal twins Twin-to-twin syndrome (TTTS) One twin takes nourishment from the other; caused by fertility drugs

19 CAUSES OF PRENATAL DAMAGE o Infections o Drugs o Maternal disorders such as diabetes o High blood pressure o Rh disease o Umbilical cord accidents o Difficult labor or delivery o Premature birth

20 FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO BIRTH DEFECTS: Overweight/Underweight Ethnic/cultural background Health problems Epilepsy No immunizations against rubella STDs: Genital herpes,Gonorrhea,Syphilis

21 HOW CAN SOME ENVIRONMENTAL BIRTH DEFECTS BE AVOIDED? Visit a health care provider for a pre-pregnancy check up ; especially if a woman has health problems When pregnant take daily prenatal vitamins containing 400 mg of the B-vitamin folic acid Avoid alcohol, drugs, smoking, prescription or over- the-counter medication unless prescribed by a health care provider

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