Presentation on theme: "PCD—Birth Defects Objective 3.01 Heredity and Environment Influences"— Presentation transcript:
1 PCD—Birth Defects Objective 3.01 Heredity and Environment Influences on Prenatal Development& Long-term Effects on the Health of Children.
2 FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. 1 out of 28 parents receive frightening news that their baby has a birth defect.There are over 4,000 known birth defectsBirth defects are the leading cause of death in the first year of life.
3 What is a Birth Defect?An abnormality of structure, function or body metabolism present at birth that results in physical or mental disability or is fatal (deadly).
4 Prenatal DevelopmentInfluenced by conditions brought on by the environment and hereditary traits.For some of these influences, there are also birth defects and long-term effects that affect the health of the child.A birth defect is an abnormality that is present at birth that affects the structure or functions of the body and may threaten a baby’s health and/or welfare.
5 Environment vs. Hereditary Prenatal Development is influenced by conditions brought on by the Environment & Hereditary Traits.For some of these influences, there are also birth defects and long-term effects that affect the health of the child.
6 Potential Causes of Birth Defects Directions:Read Chapter 4.Complete the chart on the handout provided using Chapter 4 Section 3 in the textbook, pagePick 8 of the 10 Birth DefectsList the following in the rectangle:CausesDetectionsTreatments
7 EnvironmentComplete the next slides on the bubble map labeled: Environmental Influences
16 Drugs: Over-the-counter & illegal Nothing should be taken during pregnancy without doctor’s permissionPass on drug addition to the babyMakes it necessary for baby to go through painful withdrawal period after birthProduces severe, long-term learning and behavioral problemsLarge amounts of caffeine increase risk of miscarriageLow birth-weight babiesInfant deathCocaine increases risk of miscarriageProduces strokes that lead to brain damageHeart attackBirth abnormalitiesDeathCauses tremors, irritability, sleep problems, and developmental delays
17 Exposure to hazardsChemicalspaint, pesticides, lead-based chemicals, carbon monoxide, mercury, solvents, paint thinners, and formaldehydePotentially cause physical and mental abnormalities in unborn babyX rays can cause childhood cancer, miscarriages, and mental retardationToxoplasmosisextreme high blood pressure
18 Accidental Injuries Cerebral palsy Caused by damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birthDamage to the developing embryo and fetus from accidental injuries of all types can potentially cause a wide range of birth defects
19 Hereditary Influences on Prenatal Development & Birth Defects
20 Complete the next slides on the bubble map labeled: Hereditary InfluencesLabel left side of the paper:Defective recessive genes inherited from both parentsLabel right side of the paper:Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
21 Cystic FibrosisCaused by inheritance of recessive genesMore likely to affect Caucasians than African or Asian-AmericasDefective recessive genes inherited from both parents
22 Tay-Sachs DiseaseInherited disease most common among eastern European families of Jewish descentDefective recessive genes inherited from both parents
23 Sickle Cell AnemiaMalformed red blood cells that deprive the body of oxygen and prevalent in African- AmericansDefective recessive genes inherited from both parents
24 Hemophilia Passed on from mothers to sons only Prevents blood from clottingDefective dominant gene inherited from one parent
25 Huntington’s Disease Manifests in adulthood males Leads to dementia Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
26 Duchene Muscular Dystrophy Transmitted by female carriersUsually affects only malesDefective dominant gene inherited from one parent
27 Color Blindness Usually affects only males Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent
28 Errors in ChromosomesProblems with the number or structure of chromosomesDown syndromeAssociated with mental retardationIncreased risk of heart defectsLeukemiaPoor muscle toneDistinctive physical characteristicsDefective dominant gene inherited from one parent
30 Virus during pregnancy Heart DefectInheritedDrug useVirus during pregnancy
31 Cleft lip/cleft palate Gap in upper lip or palate
32 Cleft PalateSometimes the roof of the mouth does not completely close, leaving an opening that extends into the nasal cavity.The cleft may include either side of the cavity.The abnormality may be associated with cleft lip or other syndromes.
33 Cleft LipIncomplete formation of lips during fetal development leads to Cleft Lip abnormality.The extent varies from mild to severe.The clefts can be distinguished into unilateral clefts and bilateral clefts
34 Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Risk can be reduced by taking folic acid during pregnancy
35 Multiple Births Leading to fraternal twins The hyper-ovulation gene may be inherited from the motherLeading to fraternal twinsPrimarily influenced by environmentTwin-to-twin syndrome (TTTS)Result of one twin taking nourishment from the otherFertility drugs
36 Identifying Birth Defects Symptoms_____1. Cerebral palsy ___________2. Cleft palate ___________3. Cystic fibrosis ___________4. Down syndrome ___________5. Hydrocephalus ___________6. Muscular dystrophy ___________7. PKU ___________8. Sickle cell anemia ___________9. Spina bifida ______.A. Tiredness, lack of appetite, and painB. Gap in the roof of the mouthC. Incompletely formed spinal cordD. Progressive weakness and shrinking of the musclesE. Child slow to develop motor skillsF. Overly rapid growth of the headG. Very salty sweat and a cough that doesn’t go awayH. Affects the body’s ability to properly useproteinI. Has an extra chromosome
37 Answers Birth Defects Symptoms B. Gap in the roof of the mouth E Cerebral palsy EB Cleft palate BG Cystic fibrosis HI Down syndrome HF 5. Hydrocephalus BD Muscular dystrophy HH PKU HA Sickle cell anemia HC Spina bifida B.A. Tiredness, lack of appetite, and painB. Gap in the roof of the mouthC. Incompletely formed spinal cordD. Progressive weakness and shrinking of the musclesE. Child slow to develop motor skillsF. Overly rapid growth of the headG. Very salty sweat and a cough that doesn’t go awayH. Affects the body’s ability to properly useproteinI. Has an extra chromosome
39 What potentially causes birth defects? Genetic and environmental factors60% of birth defects are currently unknownA single abnormal gene
40 Can birth defects be prevented? Potential causes of most birth defects are not known, there are a number of steps a woman can take to reduce her risk
41 Help Reduce RiskVisit a health care provider for a pre-pregnancy check upespecially if you have health problemsWhen pregnant, take daily multi-vitamins, containing B-vitamin folic acid.Avoid:AlcoholDrugsSmokingprescription or over-the-counter medications without Dr. permission!
42 Can some birth defects be diagnosed before birth? Prenatal tests that can be administered:UltrasoundAmniocentesisChronic villus sampling
44 Experiment Crack an egg in a glass jar. Fill jar halfway full of rubbing alcohol.Observe changes to the egg.Write on a sticky note how seeing the changes affects their thinking.Discussion what each item represents and how it relates to a birth defect.
45 Simon Birch 1 hour and 53 minutes A movie about a very small person; he has a lot of faith and self-confidence in spite of the fact that he is physically "different", he has little family support and he has health problems.
46 Birth Defect Group Project Directions You will receive a birth defect to investigateMake aware your findings using a blog on the Internet.References can come from your notes, textbook, and Internet to find your references.DO NOT COPY YOUR INFORMATION = PLAGERISM!!!!!Classify your birth defect:“Environmental”“Hereditary”“Both”Blog should describe the following:DescriptionCausesDetectionTreatmentHow it affects the person who has it
47 Reminders No plagiarism Not too wordy Need at least 3 references Good websites to use:No plagiarismNot too wordyNeed at least 3 referencesThe Developing Child, Page ______Third choice is your choice (can be another website or notes)Post 3 pictures to illustrate your birth defectme your final BLOG