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Presentation on theme: "PRENATAL INTRO & BIRTH DEFECTS AFTER CONCEPTION….."— Presentation transcript:


2 PRENATAL PERIOD Development of the baby during the period before birth. Prenatal Develoment in three stages Zygote—first 2 weeks of pregnancy Embryo—3 rd -8 th week of development Fetus—8 th week till delivery

3 IMPORTANT TIMES TO KNOW Prenatal Period lasts 40 weeks Is measured from the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period The most development happens during the first 6 weeks! This is when the baby is most prone to birth defects

4 What is a Birth Defect? An abnormality of structure, function or body metabolism present at birth that results in physical or mental disability or is fatal.

5 Birth Defects FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. 1 in 28 babies has a birth defect There are over 4,000 known birth defects Leading cause of death in the first year of life

6 What causes birth defects? Genetic, environmental, and unknown factors

7 EXAMPLES OF BIRTH DEFECTS Cleft Lip/Palate Club Foot Cystic Fibrosis Down’s Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Muscular Dystrophy PKU Polydactyly Sicke Cell Anemia Spina Bifida

8 MAKE A POSTER 1.Name of Birth Defect 2.What is it? (signs, symptoms,characteristics etc) 3.What causes it? 4.Treatment/Prevention Make sure all your names are on the back

9 Cleft Lip/Cleft Palate Can affect anyone Appears at birth Congenital malformation – Multi- factorial Two sides of lip and/or pallet not joined Treatment - surgery

10 Clubfoot Affects anyone Appears at birth Congenital malformation – Multi-factorial Foot and ankle twisted, making it impossible to walk normally Treatment - surgery

11 Cystic Fibrosis It's more common among those of Northern or Central European descent. Present at birth but usually diagnosed by age 2 Caused by recessive gene Disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body Antibiotics, inhalers, special exercises, special diet Life expectancy – 45 years

12 Down’s Syndrome Baby born with extra chromosome Common if baby has young or old parents Effects – Some form of mental retardation, oval shaped eyes, thick big tongue, short neck, back of head is flat, small ears, common heart problems Surgery, special assistance

13 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

14 Muscular Dystrophy Affects – anyone Appears in childhood and adulthood Multi-factorial, sex – linked Weakening of muscles. Inability to walk, move, wasting away and sometimes death No treatment

15 PKU - Phenylketonuria Affects anyone Recessive disorder Abnormal digestion of protein, mental retardation, hyperactivity Preventable diet

16 . Children inherit PKU from two parents who carry the recessive gene. Children effected Those with PKU are missing a enzyme called phenylalanine that breaks down the essential amino acid phenylalanine. PKU increases the amount of phenylalanine in the blood. This is harmful to the central nervous system

17 1 out of 10,000 to 15,000 babies are affected in the U.S PKU can be prevented. Woman planning to get pregnant should be tested to see if they carry the PKU gene. Mothers with PKU should follow a strict diet.

18 Polydactyly A condition in which a person has more than five fingers per hand or five toes per foot. You can see the extra digit before the child is born by using an ultrasound otherwise it manifests itself at birth

19 Polydactyly Polydactyly is inherited…. BUT….African Americans, are more likely to inherit Polydactyly. The extra digit often has no bone and is usually surgically removed.

20 Sickle Cell Anemia Affects primarily blacks Recessive disorder, blood disorder Abnormal blood cells, bout of pain, heart and kidney failure, less oxygen to all parts of the body. Death in childhood. Damage to adult vital organs. Blood transfusions Most common genetic disorder

21 Spina Bifida

22 Factors that contribute to Birth Defects: Mom is over age of 35 Drinks alcohol Uses prescription drugs Has used street drugs Drinks high amounts of caffeine Has had exposure to chemicals Constant exposure to cats Has had x-rays during pregnancy

23 More Factors: Mother is Overweight or Underweight Last birth was less than 12 month ago Has had a baby that weighed less than 3 ½ pounds Has had 3 or more miscarriages Has had more than 5 pregnancies Has had a still born baby

24 Pre-pregnancy check-ups and regular prenatal visits Pregnant women should take 400mg Folic Acid Avoid alcohol, drugs, smoking, Avoid prescription or over-the-counter medication without checking with a health care provider. Consider not having kids after 35 Don’t have kids too close together Prevention of Birth Defects

25 Can birth defects be diagnosed before birth? Some prenatal tests that can be taken are: –Ultrasound –Amniocentesis –Chronic villus sampling

26 PRENATAL TESTS ULTRASOUND Sound waves are used to make a video image of fetus

27 AMNIOCENTESIS Amniotic fluid is withdrawn do that DNA in amniotic fluid can be tested

28 CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING Samples of tissues surrounding fetus are tested

29 Can birth defects be treated before birth? Advances in prenatal therapy now make it possible to treat some birth defects before birth. Prenatal surgery – urinary-tract blockages, rare tumors in the lungs, spina bifida, ph disease,


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