3 ConceptionEvery 28 days, an ovum is released by one of the woman’s two ovaries.Uterus is pear shaped, able to expand during pregnancy.
4 ConceptionDuring ovulation, inner lining of the uterus grows and thickens. If the egg is not fertilized, the lining breaks and passes though.Ovum travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus.Takes about 2-3 days.
5 ConceptionWhen the ovum reaches the uterus, usually it breaks up and leaves the body.When the sperm reaches the fallopian tube it may penetrate and fertilize the ovum.This process is known as conception.
6 Conception Ovum can live 12-24 hours Sperm can live 48-72 hours Ectopic pregnancy is when the baby starts to grow in the fallopian tubes instead of the uterus.Dangerous for the mother and does not end with a live birth.
7 Role of GeneticsInherit physical traits, talents, and abilities from parents.At conception babies get 46 chromosomes.Each chromosome has hundreds of genes.Only identical twins have the same DNA
8 Dominant and Recessive Genes Dominant gene is the “stronger” one.Recessive gene is the “weaker” one.Only expressed when it is received from both parents.XX girl XY boy.
9 Multiple PregnancyWhen two or more babies develop in the same pregnancyTwins are the most commonOccur in 3% of pregnancies
11 Multiple PregnancyFraternal children develop from two or more ova and have a different genetic makeupmost commoneach baby has own chorionIdentical children develop from same ova and sperm and have the same genetic makeupMixed types of pregnancy must include fraternal and identical babies
16 Embryonic Stage (Embryo) Embryonic stage is the second stage of development, lasts about six weeksmost crucial to developmentbaby is called an embryodevelopment of most body systemsheart begins to beatcartilage is present before bones formsubstances pass from mother’s placenta through the umbilical cord
18 Fetal Stage (Fetus)Fetal stage is the third stage of pregnancy, lasts from about nine weeks after conception until birthbone starts to replace cartilagebaby is known as a fetusall parts of the body matureoverall size increases quicklyhear heartbeat in the third monthquickening (when the fetus moves) begins between the fourth and fifth months
21 Fetal Stage Cont.Age of viability is the age at which a baby could survive if born, 28 weeksstill need extensive medical carebetter chance of survival each week the baby is not bornDuring last two months of pregnancy,inner layer of lungs produces substance that allows for breathing airreceives immunities from mother in the ninth month
22 Month-by-Month Posters Nine groups – 1 group for each month of pregnancyMust include:an overall description of what occurs during that monthAt least five factsAt least 3 picturesMust be neat and professional. Take your time and make it look good! You will be presenting these.
24 Losing a BabyWhen baby passes away prior to the 20th week of pregnancy it is called a miscarriage.15% of pregnanciesAfter the 20th week it is called a stillbirth.2% of pregnanciesGrief is similar to the loss of an already born child.
25 Birth Defects There are hundreds of birth defect types. Can be physical or mentalBirth defect can result in body structure abnormalities or cause a body part to malfunction, as with blindness, deafness, or mental retardation.
26 Birth Defects Can be caused by Think: environmental factorshereditaryerrors in chromosomescombination of environmental and hereditary factorsThink:What environmental factors do you know?
27 Birth Defects Do’s and Don’ts or Pregnancy Poster Environmental Hazards Wordle
28 Birth Defects Cerebral Palsy – varying problems in the motor system Caused by damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth
29 Birth DefectsCleft Lip and Cleft Lip Palate – gap in the upper lip or palate that causes problems with eating, swallowing, speech, and appearance.Caused by hereditary, environmental factors, or both.
30 Birth DefectsCystic fibrosis – affects respiratory and digestive systems. Many die before adulthood, although treatment now allows sufferers to live longer.Caused by inheriting defective recessive genes from both parents.
31 Birth DefectsDown Syndrome – a group of problems that may include mental retardation; heart, blood, and digestive system difficulties; and poor muscle tone.Caused by presence of an extra chromosome 21.
32 Birth DefectsMuscular Dystrophy – Involve progressive weakness and shrinking of muscles.Caused by mostly heredity.
33 Birth DefectsPKU – condition in which the body is unable to process and use a specific protein present in nearly all foods. Brain damage and mental retardation can result.Caused by defective recessive genes inherited from both parents.
34 Birth DefectsSickle Cell Anemia – malformed red blood cells interfere with the supply of oxygen to all parts of the body. Symptoms include tiredness, lack of appetite, and pain. Can lead to early death.Caused by defective recessive genes inherited from both parents.
35 Birth DefectsSpina Bifida and Hydrocephalus – An incompletely formed spinal cord may lead to stiff joints, partial paralysis, and problems with the kidneys and urinary tract. 70% of children with spina bifida also have hydrocephalus, in which excess of fluid surrounds the brainCaused by combination of heredity and environmental factors.
36 Birth DefectsTay-Sachs Disease – Body is unable to process and use certain fats because of lack of a specific chemical in the baby’s blood. Leads to severe brain damage and death, usually by the age of 4.Caused by defective recessive genes inherited from both parents.
37 Avoiding Dangers to the Baby A fetus needs to be protected from many dangers.These include the mother drinking alcohol or taking other drugs, environmental hazards, diseases, and infections.
38 Health Hazards to Avoid During Pregnancy Diseases or illnesses in the motherDrugsrecreational and prescriptionRadiation exposuremedical X-rays should be avoidedEnvironmental pollutionlead, chemicals, pesticides, herbicides
39 Diseases and Infections An infection in a pregnant woman can pose a risk for the unborn baby.Some infections include:Rubella- can cause blindness, deafness, heart disease, and mental retardationToxoplasmosis- can cause blindness, hearing loss, and learning disabilities or cause a miscarriage or still birthChicken Pox- fetus can contract congenital varicella syndrome (scarring of skin, eye problems, limb defects)STIs – can be past on to the infant (like AIDS)Syphilis – skin rash, bone or facial deformities, deafness, brain damageGenital Herpes- can cause brain infection or mental retardation
40 Drugs to Avoid during Pregnancy MedicationsPrescribed – in 1950 thalidomide was prescribe to relieve morning sickness. The medication caused more than 5,000 babies to be norm with birth defects such as missing limbsover-the-counter – antacid can harm the fetusdietary supplements – large amounts of caffeine can harm the fetusherbal productsAlcoholfetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)Nicotine – can cause low birth weight, smaller babies, premature birth, and is linked to respiratory infections and allergies
41 Drugs to Avoid During Pregnancy Illegal drugs – drug addicted babies; cocaine increase the risk of miscarriage, still birth, premature birth, stroke in fetus, low birth weight, and higher risk of SIDSSIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)The sudden, unexpected death of a baby under the age of one with no clear cause.Marijuana and methamphetamine use are also linked to low birth weight and premature delivery. Can cause breathing difficulties, poor attention span, drowsiness, or heart defects in children.
42 Drugs to Avoid during Pregnancy FASIn what ways do the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome baby and Drug Addicted baby act and look different from a normal baby?After seeing the effects of FAS, what would you do if you saw a pregnant woman drinking?(3:03)
43 Environment HazardsX-Rays – can cause birth defects (dental x-rays are considered safe)Paint -PesticidesLeadCarbon MonoxideMercurySolvents, paint thinners, and formaldehyde