Presentation on theme: "Influences on Birth Defects. FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies receive the frightening."— Presentation transcript:
FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies receive the frightening news that their baby has a birth defect There are over 4,000 known birth defects Birth defects are the leading cause of death in the first year of life.
What is a Birth Defect? A Birth defect is an abnormality that is present at birth that affects the structure or function of the body and may threaten a baby’s health.
Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Inadequate nutrition of mother Stunted brain development of baby Leads to being intellectually disabled Increased risk of multiple birth defects and low birth weight
Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Exposure to diseases or infections during pregnancy Rubella, or German Measles, is a virus that can complicate pregnancy, causing miscarriage, stillbirth, or congenital disorders Toxoplasmosis, a parasite, can cause hearing loss, learning disabilities and death; found in cat litter and some raw meats. Can cause extremely high blood pressure. Chicken pox, scarring of babies’ skin, limb defects, eye problems, and miscarriage STDs can be passed to unborn child and lead to serious illness, physical disabilities, or death
Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Nicotine from smoking tobacco or secondhand smoke Smaller babies Miscarriages and premature births Respiratory infections or allergies
Alcohol-Related Birth Defects Include: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) which is characterized by 1. Facial deformities, delayed physical growth, heart defects, and hyperactivity. 2. Mental retardation or disabilities 3. Poor coordination 4. Difficulty controlling behavior Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) which result from maternal alcohol abuse but are found in the absence of the full- blown syndrome
Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Accidental injuries Cerebral palsy caused by damage to brain before, during, or shortly after birth Falls lead to a variety of complications
Hereditary Influences on Birth Defects Dominant genes? Recessive genes? Can you explain the difference?
Hereditary Influences on Birth Defects 1. Defective recessive genes inherited from both parents Cystic fibrosis Tay-Sachs disease Sickle cell anemia 2. Defective dominant gene inherited from one parent Hemophilia Huntington’s disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy Color blindness 3. Errors in chromosomes Down syndrome
Combined Influence of Heredity and Environment Birth Defects Drugs + virus = heart defect Cleft lip/cleft palate Spina Bifida – reduce risk by taking folic acid
While the potential causes of most birth defects are not known, there are a number of steps a woman can take to reduce her risk of having a baby with a birth defect. Can birth defects be prevented?
Factors that contribute to Birth Defects: Overweight Underweight Jewish descent African-American
Brainstorm Visit a health care provider for a pre- pregnancy check up, especially if a woman has health problems When pregnant take daily multivitamins containing 400 mg of the B-vitamin folic acid Avoid alcohol, drugs, smoking, prescription or over-the-counter medication unless approved by a health care provider
More factors that contribute to birth defects Drinks alcohol Uses prescription drugs Has used street drugs Takes vitamins Drinks caffeine Has had exposure to chemicals
More factors that contribute to birth defects Lives in a home built before 1955 (lead paint) Constant exposure to cats Has had x-rays during pregnancy High blood pressure Diabetes Sickle cell anemia
More factors that contribute to birth defects Health problems Genital herpes Gonorrhea Syphilis No immunizations against rubella Miscarriage
Can some birth defects be diagnosed before birth?