2 INDIRECT SPEECH/REPORTED SPEECH: “ I have no time for goingto lunch.”WHAT`S WHAT ?Ben says, “ I have no time for going to lunch.”reporting sentencedirect sentenceINDIRECT SPEECH/REPORTED SPEECH:Ben says that he has no time for going to lunch.main clausesubordinate clauseconjunction
3 EXAMPLES: conjunction subordinate clause main clausesubordinate clauseVinern asks me if I can go to have lunch with him.Father tells us that he has so much work to do.3. Granny wants to know where we went on our holiday.
4 When changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech, it is important to follow:SENTENCE TYPEVERB INMAIN CLAUSECONJUNCTIONSTATEMENTSSAY, SAYS, SAIDB) TELL, TELLS, TOLDTHATQUESTIONS ASK, ASKS, ASKEDIFORDERSREQUESTSPROHIBITIONS TELL, TELLS, TOLDASK, ASKS, ASKEDTO + INFINITIVENOT TO + INFINITIVE
5 Examples – Try changing the following DIRECT SPEECH into INDIRECT SPEECH: A. STATEMENTS1. Peter says, “ I like English.”2. She says to me, “ I`m a student.”3. Bob says to us, “ I like your car.”4. They say, “ We have lost the key.”5. Ann says, “ I don`t like to cook.”6. He says to us, “I will help you.”7. Jack says, “ My friend is sick.”Peter says that he likes English.She tells me that she is a student.Bob tells us that he likes our car.They say that they have lost the key.Ann says that she doesn`t like to cook.He tells us that he will help us.Jack says that his friend is sick.
6 EXAMPLES... A. STATEMENTS 1. Peter said, “ I like English.” 2. She said to me, “ I`m a student.”3. Bob said to us, “ I like your car.”4. They said, “ We have lost the key.”5. Ann said, “ I don`t like to cook.”6. He said to us, “I will help you.”7. Jack said, “ My friend is sick.”likeamhave lostdon`t likewill helpisPeter said that he liked English.She told me that she was a student.Bob told us that he liked our car.They said that they had lost the key.Ann said that she didn`t like to cook.He told us that he would help us.Jack said that his friend was sick.likedwashad lostdidn`t likewould help
7 NB! CHANGES ! With the main clause in the Past we must use the rules ofSEQUENCE OF TENSES OR BACKSHIFT inSubordinate clausePresent Simple Past SimplePast Simple Past PerfectPres. Progressive Past ProgressivePres. Perfect Past PerfectFuture Simple Future in the PastBut only in statements & questions!!!
8 MORE CHANGES in pronouns in place and time I HE/SHE MY HIS/HER WE THEY OUR THEIRdepends on personshaving a talkin place and timehere therenow thentoday that dayyesterday the day beforetomorrow the next daythis week that weeklast week the week beforea year ago the year beforewith the main clause in the Past
9 Additional verbs for reporting (communicative function) STATEMENTSQUESTIONSORDERS & REQUESTSNext tosay(s), saidtell(s), toldwe can also use:admit remindadvise thinkagree guessinsist confirmpromise warnNext to ask(s)askedwant to knowwonderNext to tell, toldask, askedagree offerpromise refuseadvise inviteremind threatenwarn suggest
10 EXAMPLES... A. STATEMENTS 1. Peter said, “Yes, I like English.” 2. She said to me, “ I`m a student.”3. They said, “ We have lost the key.”5. Ann said, “ I don`t like to cook.”6. He said to us, “I will help you.”7. Jack said, “ My friend is sick.”Instead of traditional saidtoldsaidPeter admitted that he liked English.She confirmed me that she was a student.They confessed that they had lost the key.Ann agreed that she didn`t like to cook.Jack was sorry that his friend was sick.He promised that he would help us.admittedconfirmedconfessedagreedpromisedwas sorry